Information and communication technology (ICT) usage and undergraduate students' study habits in universities in Cross River State, Nigeria.

Author:Ntui, Aniebiet Inyang
Position::Report
 
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Introduction

Success in school is not so much determined by sheer intelligence as knowing how to study. Being successful in school requires effective study habits. A student's study habits play an important role in determining his/her success in the learning process. Study habits can be good ones which lead to a student excelling or bad ones which can lead to a student getting mediocre grades. Nneji (2002), defined study habits as learning tendencies that enable students work privately. Effective and successful study consists of more than merely memorizing facts but calls for knowing where and how to obtain information and the ability to make intelligent use of it. Study habits directly reflect on one's learning ability.

Wood and Neal (2007), states that study habits are approaches applied to learning. They are generally critical to success in schools, are considered essential for acquiring good grades, and are useful for learning throughout one's life. There are arrays of study habits, which may tackle the process of organising and taking in new information, retaining information, or dealing with assessments, they include good time management, effective note taking, and homework completion. Acquiring effective study habits are often left up to the student and their support, however there is evidence that they are increasingly taught at the university level.

According to Kass (2013), for students to ensure academic success throughout their stay in the university, it is important to do away with bad study habits. No matter what age and academic level, employing effective study habits can make all the difference between making an 'A', barely passing or worse, failing miserably. Kass (2013), further stated that students should identify their own study preferences, what works for them on a consistent basis and act accordingly. For example, some students study better in the morning or can better focus in small chunks of time rather than a marathon session. Knowing exactly what does and does not work on a personal level, even tracking study patterns and correlating it with related grades, and then proactively creating a study plan and schedule around the proven effective methods, is the most powerful study tool of all. Fielden, (2004), states that good study habits help the student in critical reflection in skills outcomes such as selecting, analysing, critiquing, and synthesizing.

Romeo (2006), stated that students cannot learn simply by being told what to do or by watching others, they have to practice studying frequently. Successful students employ time management system to create study pattern that work and use active learning methods to add meaning and interest to their study time and maintaining their motivation by connecting reasons for study to their life goals and values. Students must develop and established good study habits in doing school work, which can raise their academic performance. Students can easily attain the mastery and areas of specialization and excellent performances from them to gradually attain achievement through their consistent study habits. High grades are commonly the aim of students.

Romeo (2006), stressed that the students' success is dependent on their effectiveness, efficiency and concentration on studying and these are affected by the learning materials they use and the way they use it. Hence, the value of studying is precious and not to be squandered, no matter what the students believe regarding this matter. Study habits may play a major role in academic achievement of the students because without this habit, certainly they cannot fully succeed in their study.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT), is a composite term, which embodies three important concepts. To understand ICT, one must understand all the three concepts. "Information" means many things to many people, depending on the context. Scientifically, information is processed data. Information can also be loosely defined as that which aids decision making. Information, though abstract, could also be visualized as a commodity, which could be bought or sold (DeWatteville & Gilbert, 2000).

Communication refers to the transfer or exchange of information from person to person or from one place to another. When action produces a reaction, whether positive or negative, communication has taken place (Benki & Abba, 2008).

Technology refers to the use of scientific knowledge to invent tools that assists human beings in their efforts to overcome environmental hazards and impediments to comfort. In this regard, technology refers to things like the computer, telephone, mobile phone, television, and the radio. Put together, therefore, ICT has been defined as the acquisition, analysis, manipulation, storage and distribution of information and the design and provision of equipment and software for these purposes (Benki & Abba, 2008).

According to Burniske (2001), ICT skills play an important role in developing a nation. ICT has been regarded as an important tool to leverage the economy and society, thus mastering basic skills and concepts of ICT has become one of the core parts in education, besides reading, writing and numeracy. ICT skills are necessary...

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