Organizational culture can be described as the sum of basic assumptions, practices, principles, beliefs, norms and values that govern behaviour and actions of members of a particular organisation, community or society. It is an incorporated pattern of human behaviour that is special to a particular organisation and it is a powerful tool that influences employees' behaviour and organisational success or failure. Organisational culture provides the fundamental values, beliefs and principles that serve as underpinning for any organisational practices and procedures. It is the pattern of shared basic assumptions which is invented, discovered or developed by a given group or an organisation as a method of doing things which have worked well enough to be considered valid and to be inculcated into new members of the organisation as the correct way to perceive, think, feel and do things in that particular organisation (Emerson, 2013). It is reported by scholars (Akhigbe et al., 2014; Bellary et al., 2015), that organisational culture is a powerful force that influences both employee dispositions and institutional success. It defines the acceptable behaviour in an organisation and at the same time, affects, the individual workforce satisfaction and turnover intention.
Turnover intention can be described as the rate to which a member of staff is willing to leave a particular organisation; it affects organisational sustainability and rating. Turnover intention is a process whereby an employee decides to quit or leave a particular organisation for another one for some reasons. It implies an employee's personal anticipated likelihood that he or she has a deliberate intention to quitting the establishment in the near future. It can also be described as employee's consideration or thinking to quitting a job (Long & Thean, 2011). Employee's turnover intention has been a serious problem of organisations regardless of their size, locations or nature of business as the effect of high turnover intention on organisational objectives affects negatively the quality of organisational products or services (Long & Thean, 2011). Turnover intention may arise as a result of some factors or features directly present in an organisation such as, organisational policies, motivational strategies and organisational culture among others.
Statement of the Problem
The success or failure of any organisation to a large extent may be determined by the human factor. This is why organisations including library and information centres should take utmost attention to the human capital. The culture of any organisation may have significant influence on staff intention to leave or remain in any organisation. Organisational cultures that are not human friendly may lead to staff intention to quit the organisation. Researches revealed that the level of turnover intention of library staff in university libraries is high (Olusegun, 2012). This eventually will affect the organizational functions and services negatively, for example the negative effect of staff turnover such as cost of replacing the staff, training need, loss of investment on the staff and it will also slow down the work process in the organisations including library and information centres. This actually is a course for concern. Although some studies such as Seed et al. most of them are foreigners, there is need to investigate the case of Nigeria. Similarly, there is need to investigated the relationship between the independent of organizational culture on the dependent variable of turnover intention in the Nigerian context.
Objective of the Study
The general objective of the study is to investigate the influence of organisational culture on turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries in South-West, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:
Identify the organizational culture in private university libraries in south-west Nigeria.
Ascertain the level of turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries in south-west Nigeria.
Establish the relationship between organizational culture and turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries south-west, Nigeria.
What is the organizational culture in the chosen private university libraries in South-West?
What is the level of turnover intention of library staff in the private university libraries in South-West Nigeria?
[H.sub.0]: There is no significant relationship between organizational culture and turnover intention of library staff in selected libraries.
Concept of Organizational Culture
Organizational culture can be described as the core value that defines corporate practices and behavioural pattern. It is a major factor that influences organizational decisions and actions. It represents the sum total of the assumptions, values, norms, symbols, technologies and behaviours of the organizational members (Alvi et al., 2014). In a similar way, Davoodalmousavi (2013) described organizational culture as set of beliefs, norms, values that guide the thinking and actions of employees in the organization.
In defining organizational culture, it is evident from literature that most definitions combine assumptions, values, norms, beliefs, ways of thinking and acting together to explain and discuss the concept of organizational culture. A study by Aldhuwaihi (2013) citing Quinn & Cameron (2011) reported that organisational culture has a strong relationship with the organisations values, mission, aims, goals and ways of building shared values. Similarly, organisational culture implies a system of intangible and indisputable beliefs that justify how organisational members conduct themselves. Also, Mateiu et al. (2013) pointed out that the organisational culture in any organisation is formed through the process of interactions among specific elements, such as organisation's founder, selection criteria, top management and socialization. According to the authors, these elements in the organisation work together to create a unique organisational culture in that establishment or institution.
There are four types of organisation culture as propounded by Quinn & Cameron (2013) that can be practiced by any organisation. These are: Collaborate (Clan) Culture, Create (Adhocracy) Culture, Control (Hierarchy) Culture and Compete (Market) Culture.
Collaborate (clan) culture
This type of culture is family-like, which believes on mentoring, encouragement and working collectively. It is an open and pleasant work place atmosphere where workers share a lot about themselves. It can be compared to the extended family. Leaders are considered to be mentors or even parent like. Group allegiance and sense of practice are strong.
Create (adhocracy) culture
This type of culture is dynamic with a focus on risk-taking, innovation, entrepreneurial and creative place to work environment. A pledge to testing and thinking differently are what join the group.
Control (hierarchy) culture
An extremely planned and controlled ambience characterised by doing things right and formal. Policy and procedures guide behaviours. Leaders strive to be good coordinators. Maintaining a smooth-running organisation is most important. Official policies are what hold the group jointly.
Compete (market) culture
A result oriented and market driven organisation based on result achievement. The group is competitive and result driven. Leaders are challenging, hard-driving and productive. The emphasis on winning unifies the organisation. (Quinn & Cameron, 2013). It is possible for an organisation to have more than one organisational culture type because the different departments might be practicing different variants. Denison (2000) proposed an organisational culture theory. The theory is based on four cultural aspects in any organisation which are: involvement, consistency, adaptability and mission.
Leaders and employees are dedicated to their job and believe that they have a stake in the organisation when they have at least some contributions in decisions that will affect their work and their work is linked to the aim of the organisation and personal achievement.
Organisations are likely to be effective because they have strong cultures that are highly consistent, well-coordinated and well incorporated. Behaviours are entrenched in a set of core values and...