Background of the Study
A characteristic of organisations in the 21st century is the continuous and rapid pace of change. Volatile free market economic environments, rapidly changing technologies, global competition, workforce diversity, and new organisational structures are some of the challenges an organisation faces. Organisations may differ in the priority they attach to the human resource component, in their efforts toward achieving high productivity and competitive advantage, yet they all recognize the value of a qualified, motivated, stable, and responsive team of employees (Huselid, 1995).
Retention and productivity levels of the existing workforce are an essential concern in human resource management. Employee turnover is one of the most studied topics in organisational psychology (Mitra, Jenkins and Gupta, 1992) and is of interest to other professionals, including personnel researchers, and managers of organisations (Mobley, Griffeth, Hand and Meglino, 1979).
According to Tella, Ayeni and Popoola (2007), the management of people at work is an integral part of the management process. To understand the critical importance of people in the organisation is to recognize that the human element and the organisation are synonymous. A well-managed organisation usually sees an average worker as the root source of quality and productivity gains. Such organisations do not look at capital investment, but at employees, as the fundamental source of improvement. An organisation is effective to the degree to which it achieves its goals. An effective organisation will make sure that there is a spirit of cooperation and sense of commitment and satisfaction within the sphere of its influence. In order to make employees satisfied and committed to their jobs in academic libraries, there is need for strong and effective motivation at the various levels, departments, and sections of the library.
In order for an organisation to be successful they must continuously ensure the satisfaction of their employees. Job satisfaction is defined as "an individual's reaction to the job experience" (Berry, 1997). There are various components that are considered to be vital to job satisfaction. These variables are important because they all influence the way a person feels about his/her job. These components include the following: pay, promotion, benefits, supervisor, co-workers, work conditions, communication, safety, productivity, and the work itself. Each of these factors figure into an individual's job satisfaction differently. One might think that pay is considered to be the most important component of job satisfaction, although this has not been found to be true. Employees are more concerned with work in an environment they enjoy.
Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of one's relationship with the supervisor, quality of physical environment in which one works and the degree of fulfillment in one's work.
Positive attitudes towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction where-as negative attitudes towards job have been defined variously from time to time. In short, job satisfaction is determined by a person's attitude towards job.
Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from balancing and summation of many specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job-their evaluation may rest largely upon one's success or failure in the achievement of personal objective and upon perceived combination of the job and combination towards these ends.
According to Pestonejee, job satisfaction can be taken as a summation of employee's feelings in four important areas. These are:
(1) Job - nature of work (dull, dangerous, interesting), hours of work, fellow workers, opportunities on the job for promotion and advancement (prospects), overtime regulations, interest in work, physical environment and machines and tools.
(1) Management supervisory treatment, participation, rewards and punishments, praises and blames, leaves policy and favouritism.
(2) Social relations - friends and associates, neighbour, attitudes towards people in community, participation in social activity, sociability and caste barrier.
(3) Personal adjustment - health and emotionality.
Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and predictor of work behaviour such as organisational citizenship absenteeism, turnover.
Job satisfaction benefits the organisation includes reduction in complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctuality and worker morale. Job satisfaction is also linked with a healthier work force and had been found to be a good indicator of longevity.
Job satisfaction is not synonymous with organisational morale, which the possessions of feeling have being accepted by and belonging to a group of employees through adherence to common goals and confidence in desirability of these goals. Morale is the by - product of the group, while job satisfaction is more an individual state of mind.
Job satisfaction describes how contented an individual is with his or her job. It is a relatively recent term since in previous centuries the jobs available to a particular person were often predetermined by the occupation of that person's parent. There are a variety of factors that can influence a person's level of job satisfaction. Some of these factors include the level of pay and benefits, the perceived fairness of the promotion system within a company, the quality of the working conditions, leadership and social relationships, the job itself (the variety of tasks involved, the interest and challenge the job generates, and the clarity of the job description/requirements).
The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous workgroups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organisations. The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs.
Satisfaction refers to an individual subjective evaluation of the quality of any relationship. According to a social exchange perspective, satisfaction depends on two factors: the outcomes we receive from the relationship and our general comparison level. (Rusbult, 1980, 1983). One is satisfied if a relationship is profitable, that is, if the rewards of the relationship exceed the costs incurred. One is also satisfied if a relationship compares favourably to one's hopes and expectations. Perceptions of fairness also affect satisfaction: even if a relationship provides many benefits, one may not be fully satisfied if one believes that he is being treated unfairly. In business, partners are usually dissatisfied if they perceive the relationship to be inequitable.
The effective utilization of people to work in any organisation has always been a pressing problem in the society. Every organisation must figure out what he or she is basically trying to accomplish, how to organize the work to achieve the goals, how to recruit, train, allocate work to and manage the workers (human resources) available to do the work, how to create work conditions, reward and punishment systems that will enable workers and managers sufficient morale to remain effective over a...