IMPLEMENTING ROADMAP MODEL AHEAD INDONESIAN BUREAUCRATIC REFORM THROUGH QUICK WINS METHOD.

Author:Simangunsong, Fernandes
 
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INTRODUCTION

By the current globalization era, government including local government can not be the only main actor in national development. There are other actors beside government, for example academics, businessmen, civil society, and diaspora group or migrants overseas who can return to Indonesia any time. Local government needs to understand the changes comprehensively and adjust its way of thinking and acting. In reform era, civil society organizations, political parties and intellectuals (faculties/academics) seem to have a bigger role in creating social changes, especially in the realization of a democratic society. Therefore, it is necessary that bureaucrats change their way of thinking and acting in order to provide well and optimum services to the public (Dwiyanto, 2010).

Lipsky (2010) introduced Street-level bureaucrats term which difined as officials whose duties involve direct interaction with citizens and who have some discretion in carrying out their work. Due to the enforcement of the information disclosure system, information that was exclusively retained by the government in the past can now be disclosed, which grants citizens a means of checking on Government activities (Oh, 2003).

However, some bureaucracies are still unable to completely adjust to changes, either by public demand or competition in globalization era. There are still obstacles to the application of organizational performance and organizational culture properly and efficiently in order to encourage government apparatus to be competent and honest. Other causes are an existing drawback in an information system, inadequate quantity, and quality of government apparatus according to national and international standard, centered-decision making process regarding policy, and not optimal law enforcement. All of those indicate that bureaucratic behavior and culture has not changed significantly, despite the fact that administrative paradigm has changed from centralized to decentralized (Keban, 2004).

Central and local governments define public participation as a mandatory task of public Policy Making Processes (PMPs). Therefore, it is imperative to engage with citizens and take into consideration their opinions throughout any PMPs to ensure the sustainability of public sector policy implementation public participation processes (Leea et al., 2017).

The implementation of regional autonomy for decentralization is a complex and continuous change. In the initial step of decentralization, transfer of various types of authority is conducted from central government to various institutions, especially sub-national government institutions. After the transfer of authority, it is followed by transfer of funding, documents and facilities, and infrastructures. After all those steps above accomplished, it is continued by improvement of the capacity of institutions that receive transfer of authority in order to manage it properly and appropriately. Without appropriate management, transfer of authority from central to local government by which objectives are to develop democracy, to improve effectiveness and efficiency of administration and to distribute social justice, will not be achieved. There will be new sources of inefficiency, ineffectiveness and injustice in regions that can trigger a multidimensional crisis (Silaban & ed, 2012).

Regard with implement regional autonomy according to the Constitution's mandate, local bureaucracy should be reformed in all aspects, including reform of management in order to be in accordance with dynamics of development of the strategic environment. Management becomes a vital factor in the implementation of bureaucratic reform in order to achieve successful implementation of regional autonomy in Indonesia. This view is in line with opinion by Peter F. Drucker in Savage (1990), the Father of Modern Management, who declined the term "underdeveloped country" for country that lags behind most others. Drucker suggested using term "undermanaged country", because their lagging behind is mostly caused by poor management. In other words, advancement of a country is very determined by the quality of its management. This mutatis-mutandis also happens in autonomous regions in Indonesia. Moreover, Drucker suggested that the failure of government organization as service institution is caused by three things. First, the managers lack of perception and capacity for business. Second, they need fresh new personnel. And third, its target and output are immeasurable and intangible.

Management reform is Conditio Sine Qua Non for bureaucratic reform in order to realize the successful implementation of regional autonomy. Without reformed management, mistakes did in the past that brought our nation and country to the edge of destruction can repeat itself. Political will to reorganize the management of local government shall return to the stakeholders, especially the sector of local government itself.

Law No. 22 of 1999 and Law No. 32 of 2004 and replaced by Law No. 23 of 2014 on Local Government suggest new paradigms in the administration of local government. This momentum should be used to reorganize bureaucracy at the level of local government, including its management as a system that regulates coordination to achieve its objectives. The condition of bureaucracy in Indonesia in this reform era does not yet show the direction to good development, because of there are still many arrogant bureaucrats acting like an autocrat, and many corruption, collusion and nepotism practices at the level of central, provincial, and Regency/city government. In addition, bureaucrats tend to stay in their comfort zone with more based on seniority instead of competitiveness. A bureaucrat is generally not ready to enter the competitive zone. This is indicated by their refusal on open job-bidding other than simply a formality.

To make bureaucracy reliable and professional, Government has formulated various strategic policies. One of them is Presidential Regulation No. 81 of 2010 on Grand Design of Bureaucratic Reform in Indonesia 2010-2025, followed by Regulation of Minister of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform No. 37 of 2013 on Guidelines for Preparation of Roadmap of Bureaucratic Reform of Local Government.

To accelerate the achievement of output of change by the bureaucratic reform 9 (nine) Acceleration Programs of Bureaucratic Reform is made. Acceleration program is used by all government institutions, including West Java Province Government, to support the implementation of bureaucratic reform in each institution of Ministry, Agency and Local Government. Those 9 (nine) Acceleration Programs of bureaucratic reform are:

  1. Restructuring of Government Organizations.

  2. Resetting of Number and Distribution of Civil Servants.

  3. Development of Open Selection and Promotion System.

  4. Improvement of Professionalism of Civil Servants.

  5. Development of integrated Electronic Administrative System.

  6. Improvement of Public Service.

  7. Improvement of Integrity and Accountability of Performance of Apparatus.

  8. Improvement of Welfare of Civil Servants.

  9. Increasing of Efficiency in Personnel Expenses.

    Based on the overall statement above, this study will focus on how the Roadmap model on Indonesian bureaucratic reform through Quick Wins method and what the parameter, program and activity for Roadmap model on Indonesia bureaucratic reform through Quick Wins method.

    THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

    West Java Bureaucracy Condition

    The final objective of bureaucratic reform program is realization government that is free of corruption, collusion and nepotism, accountable and having high performance, and able to provide quality public service. In the implementation of bureaucratic reform in West Java Province Government, it refers to great agenda of bureaucratic reform that covers 9 (nine) areas of change:

    Management change

    Management Change aims to encourage bureaucratic reform with the systematic and continuous system through well-planned and controlled steps. The target of this program is to trigger commitment of all elements of government to implement bureaucratic reform, to change the mindset and work culture, to reduce the risk of resistance in the implementation of bureaucratic reform.

    Management of laws and regulations

    One of the programs of bureaucratic reform is expected to increase the effectiveness in the management of laws and regulations issued by Ministries/Agencies/Local Government. The effectiveness can be by reducing the overlapping regulations in all levels of government and increasing effectiveness in the management of preparation and implementation of laws and regulations.

    Restructuring and consolidation of organization

    Restructuring and consolidation of organization is aimed to resolve problems that frequently occur in the government, especially local government. Main objective of this program is to increase organizational efficiency of ministries/agencies/local government proportionally according to the needs of each organization in order to achieve appropriate functionality and appropriate size.

    Redesigning of management

    This program aims to increase effectiveness of efficiency of system, process, and work procedure in each institution to be clear, effective, efficient and measurable. Each government organization needs to set machinery of government that connects clearly between structure and process. The target of redesigning of management is to improve the usage of information technology in the administration of government and management of government, to increase efficiency in the process of management of government and to increase performance of government.

    Redesigning of human resources management system

    One of priority program in bureaucratic reform is redesigning of apparatus human resources management system, which program is expected to create professional and competent human resources with...

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