Author:Rahim, Abdul Rahman


Galesong and North Galesong districts are two districts located on the line of West Coast of Takalar Regency. Both districts are the most densely populated areas in Takalar Regency. Based on data in Statistic Board, the population in these two sub-districts in 2013 is 76,327 people or about 27.20% of the total population while the area of 41.04 km or about 7.24% of the total area of Takalar Regency, thus the density in both sub-districts are 1,500 people/[km.sup.2] for Galesong district and 2,477 inhabitants/km for North Galesong district. This situation actually characterizes the pattern of population dispersal in coastal areas that are characteristic are solid, especially in residential areas that coincide directly with the beach.

A common characteristic of coastal communities is characterized by a group of people living in coastal areas living together and meeting their life needs from coastal resources. According to Priyanto (2009), people living in coastal cities or settlements have socially economic characteristics closely related to the economic resources of the marine region. Similarly, types of livelihoods that utilize natural resources or environmental services exist in coastal areas such as fishermen, fish farmers and owners or workers of the maritime industry. Coastal communities dominated by fishing businesses are generally still on the poverty line; they have no livelihood options, have low levels of education, are unaware and are aware of the sustainability of natural resources and the environment (Lewaherilla, 2002). Furthermore, from the status of land legality, the characteristics of some residential areas in the coastal areas generally do not have legal status (legal), especially areas that are self- reclaimed by the community (Suprijanto, 2006).

Various problems in relation to the economic activities of coastal communities are generally not yet touched with the right government policy because often the programs implemented have not touched the whole root cause of the problems faced by the community, because (a) put more people as objects rather than as subjects of development, (b) prioritizes industry growth rather than agriculture and marine sectors, (c) as well as development policies that do not refer to the characteristics of each local condition in the region and (d) the fishing profession is still consider as a job that does not require a high skill and (e) from an economic point of view, fishing communities/coastal communities are positioned as marginal groups that are perceived as having very little potential to develop. This has resulted in the slow process of technological intervention, capacity building and innovation among fishermen.

Judging from the socio-economic aspect, one way of empowering coastal communities is to improve the skills, capabilities and awareness of the economic potential of coastal areas. Due to the management of coastal and marine resource areas, it should provide the greatest benefits to coastal communities as the main actors and owners of those resources. Therefore all coastal development activities should be devoted to improving the quality of life and welfare of coastal communities without sacrificing the socio-cultural aspects of local communities. The process of accelerating the improvement of the living standards of coastal communities needs to be approached with a cultural approach, which places them as actors of change. Coastal community empowerment activities strived in the framework of a harmonious approach with regard to the system and institutional values that grow and develop in coastal communities.

One way that can be done to empower coastal communities, especially the youth, is to encourage them to have the ability to identify business opportunities in the field of marine and fishery resource management. The results of initial observations made show that the average head of household has dependents of 4-7 people while their income is uncertain because many depend on the weather factor and the high operational to go to sea, especially most fishermen families only as labor level (sawi-Makassar language) the catch must be shared with the retainer or owner of the boat. In every household, the average has productive age children who have no longer school (junior high school or high school) with the main activities only helped parents to go to sea and some even have no job at all. Yet in fact around the environment there are many potential that can be developed, such as in the field of canning, alienation and floss management and various other business fields that are prospective and can be managed in home industry scale.

The main problem with poor people in coastal areas who have strong strength, workers, persistence, easy to accept new things (dynamic), but they "bother" to be poor because they do not have enough cost for Education which is higher, more than one is in school and it is assured they come from a family that is already rich because the income from their own boat. Younger numbers, occupied are those who can only finish their education until junior high school and high school will continue to grow which, if not encouraged to empower themselves will be bad for life they face and consequently damaged. Coastal, can also shift out by adding a level of social vulnerability to the environment as a whole.

With this, then the research problems were:

  1. Special typology of coastal areas, especially the distribution of economic resources that can be developed as business opportunities in Galesong District and North Galesong District Takalar regency.

  2. The role of key development actors in coastal areas, in this case local government, community leaders, youth leaders and youth social organizations to foster economic empowerment of communities in coastal areas.

  3. Factors that cause low interest of the youth to exploit the potential of coastal resources as business opportunities that can be created professionally and profitably.

  4. Model that can be developed to encourage young entrepreneurs based on local resources in coastal areas Galesong District and North Galesong District Takalar regency.

    The main objective of this research is to find a framework of empowerment models that can be used as a tool to foster greater enthusiasm, creativity, innovation and access to initiate productive activities for youth in coastal communities through the involvement of key actors existing in the study area. Therefore, this deepening will ultimately find models and methods that involve key actors to provide space and support for the growing interest of young coastal people to empower themselves. In the advanced stage, the model and method will be applied, accompanied by the implementation, then make further revisions and improvements. In the end it is expected to be born young entrepreneurs, especially in the field of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) that pioneered to create incubator spreader "entrepreneurial virus" in the surrounding environment.


    Understanding coastal areas is an intermediate region between the sea and the land, towards land covering areas still affected by sea or tidal splashes and toward the sea comprising the (continental shelf) (Dahuri et al., 2001). Furthermore Bengen, Eidman & Boer (2001) proposes coastal areas as land territories adjacent to the sea, the boundaries on land include areas inundated or unlogged that are still affected by marine processes such as tides, sea winds and salt intrusions, while the boundary at sea is the areas affected by natural processes on land such as sedimentation and the flow of fresh water into the sea, as well as the marine areas that are affected by human activities on the land.

    Some researches on the economic life of coastal communities, among them Wasak (2010) found that fishing households whose jobs were solely dependent on catching fish earned income that only fulfilled their daily needs and if any money remained, it is usually used for school fees for children, buying clothing and improving housing. Study findings in various fishing communities' abroad show that socio-economic organizations and other related institutions in coastal villages play an important role in improving the living standards of coastal communities. In other words, socio-economic organization can be a support in the effort to improve the living standards of coastal communities. Without socio-economic organization, fishermen will work and live alone without anyone fighting for and protecting their interests (Mantjoro, 1988).

    Some efforts of empowerment can be done through three directions, as revealed by Kartasasmita in Zubaedi (2013), namely: 1) Create an atmosphere or climate that enables the potential of the community...

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