IMPLEMENTATION OF DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE: CASE OF JORDAN.

Author:Aldaibat, Bassam F.
 
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INTRODUCTION

Several profound trends are shaping the labor markets of modern organization. Researchers suggest that current workforce characteristics are radically different from what they were several decades ago (Cummings & Worley, 2009). In the past decades firms took a melting-pot approach to diversity, assuming that workers could somehow automatically accommodate into existing culture. But today's managers have found that employees do not put aside their cultural values when they come to work (Decenzo et al., 2010). The challenge, therefore, is to make firms more accommodating to diverse groups of workers by handling different lifestyles, family needs, and work styles.

Organizational justice has become one of the common concepts in understanding workers' behavior in the workplace (Fujimoto et al, 2013). Organizational justice has many effects on many organizational variables such as contextual performance dimensions (Abojaser, 2010). Organizational justice research has deployed during the past years (Greenberg & Colquitt, 2013). Meanwhile, given the diversity of the contemporary workforce, there is a many research in diversity management. However, while each of the two subjects of research has continued to grow, there seems little correlating between the two (Choi & Rainey, 2014).

Industrial companies operating in Al-Hassan industrial estate (HIE) contribute to the Jordanian economy through economic development and increasing the national income (Qudah, 2017). Furthermore, it is contributing in generating innovations, creating jobs, and introducing advanced technology to improve goods and services. HIE considered the first Jordanian industrial estate it was established in 1984, and considered the largest industrial estate in Jordan. The investment amount reaches (479) millions and the export (432) millions in 2016. According to (HIE) statistics the rate of foreign workers has reached 76% in 2016, and the rate of women's economic participation had reached 87% in 2016 (JISC, 2016). Al-Hassan industrial companies face many changes in external environment such as increased competition locally and globally which requires effective diversity management. Therefore, Al-Hassan Industrial companies might apply diversity management practices to promote perceptions of organizational justice and reducing discrimination.

We lack empirical studies that examine the impact of human resource diversity management on organizational justice. The integration of diversity management and organizational justice remains a matter of guessing (Berry, 2016; Choi & Rainey, 2014). The aim of the research is to help address this gap by investigating the effect of diversity management practices on organizational justice in Jordanian industrial organizations.

The aim of this research is twofold. First, it investigates Jordanian managers' attitudes and understandings regarding workforce diversity management and organizational justice, and second it assesses the impact of managing diverse work force toward organizational justice. Therefore, we will search a response to the following three research questions: (1) What is the awareness degree about the diversity management policies at the industrial organization, from the standpoint of managers? (2) What is the awareness degree about the concept of organizational justice at Jordanian industrial organizations from the standpoint of mangers? (3) What is the impact of diversity management policies on organizational justice at Jordanian industrial organizations?

LITERATURE REVIEW AND HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT

Diversity Management

Fujimoto et al. (2013) defined diversity management as managerially-initiated programs and human resource management that seek to empower the diverse workforce by integrating social groups. According to Pitts (2009) diversity management means a comprehensive method that merges the affirmative action and diversity management programs. Daft (2010) defined diversity management as a creating suitable organizational climate that improve individuals and groups performance in the organization and minimize potential disadvantages. Yang & Konard (2011) defined diversity management as a set of formalized practices developed and implemented by organizations to manage diversity effectively.

Organizational Justice

Organizational justice refers to the workers' tendency to compare their situation with colleagues status at work, or the workers perceptions and justice recognition in the workplace, which ultimately affects their attitudes and behaviors at work (Steers & Porter, 2006). The historical roots of organizational justice go back to Adams' theory of equity, which is based on a basic assumption that individuals tend to judge justice by comparing their inputs to the outputs they receive, as well as comparing the ratio of inputs to their outputs with their peers (Luthans, 2008). Organizational justice is a strong enabler, motivating employees to achieve organizational goals, through the establishment of conducive employee-employer relationships (Greenberg & Colquitt, 2013). Administrative literature specifies three types of justice: distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice (Cuguero & Fortin, 2014).

Distributive justice refers to employees' released fairness about work outcomes without any discrimination due to age, sex or ethnicity. Distributive justice concerns perceptions of fair distribution of gains in accordance with the value of the by employees (Tan, 2014). Procedural justice means the fair implementation of work policies on all workers without discrimination, and how employees perceive the fairness of rules and procedures used in a process (Nabatchi et al., 2007). Procedural justice also refers to employees' perceived Justice fairness about human resources policies that affect work outcomes (Fujimoto et al., 2013). Interactional justice refers to employees' perceived fairness in relation to the quality of interpersonal interaction with which employees' are treated by authority (Abojaser, 2010). Interactional justice emphasizes treating employees with dignity, sensitivity and respect, Interactional justice is often further separated into interpersonal and informational justice (Al-Zu'bi, 2010).

Diversity Management Impact on Organizational Equity

Park & Kim (2017) indicated that diversity management is positively related to the perception of organizational fairness in the workplace. Fujimoto et al. (2013) mentioned that effective diversity management results from a decision-making process that meets the normative principles of organizational justice. According to Claudia & Deanne (2015) high level of interactional justice exhibited by the line manager promotes the performance of nationally diverse teams. Berry (2016) argued that diversity and equity are necessary for multicultural societies and their organizations to be successful and the presence of both can lead to full integration while the absence of both can lead to marginalization. Choi & Rainey (2014) examined whether DM, implemented in an environment of perceived organizational fairness and fair treatment, enhances job satisfaction. They found when employees perceive a higher level of organizational fairness; diversity efforts become more effective through enabling higher levels of job satisfaction. Mitchell (2004) indicated that social equity can be achieved if managers have a clear understanding of diversity and diversity management that is built into the organization's culture. Magoshi & Eunmi (2009) indicated that diversity management practices trigger positive effects on employees' organizational commitment, which was mediated by their perception of procedural justice.

Pitts (2009) mentioned that diversity management has an impact on workers performance and job satisfaction, and there are differences between employees perception toward diversity management based on their race. Armstong et al. (2008) indicated that there is a positive impact of diversity management and workers creativity and productivity. According to Al-Ramdneh (2015) there is a positive impact of human resources diversity management and organizational excellence.

Al-Masarwa (2011) indicated that there is a strong relationship between human resources diversity management and organizational commitment. D'netto et al. (2014) concluded that Australian manufacturing organizations appear to adopt a legalistic compliance approach' and have not considered workforce diversity as a source of competitive advantage. Tanachia & Sandra (2015) stated that diversity management is associated with higher levels of inclusion which is in turn boosts affective commitment and organizational citizenship behavior of both non-native and native Dutch employees. Charbel et al. (2011) concluded in their study in Brazil that diversity management in Brazilian companies is still an emerging issue, and the major challenges are related to discriminatory actions taken by coworkers and diversity management requires the strong support of top management and continuous organization to sustain efforts toward incorporating diversity. Buengeler & Hartog (2015) concluded in their study that a high level of...

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