SIC 9441 Administration of Social, Human Resource, and Income Maintenance Programs


SIC 9441

This category covers government agencies engaged in assistance to the elderly, child welfare, aid to families with dependent children, aid to the blind and disabled, medical assistance, human resource development, and related activities. The actual operations of the programs are classified in various social services industries, but both the administration and operation of Social Security, disability benefits under OASDI, disability insurance, Medicare, unemployment insurance, worker's compensation, and other social insurance programs for the aged, survivors, or disabled persons are classified under this industry. The offices that administer veterans' programs are classified in SIC 9451: Administration of Veterans' Affairs, Except Health Insurance. Local employment service offices are classified in Services under SIC 7361: Employment Agencies.



Administration of Social, Human Resources, and Income Maintenance Programs


Federal activities directed toward the social welfare of Americans are overseen by divisions within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). It was created in 1953 as the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW). Following the Department of Education Organization Act, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is considered the largest (in terms of government-originated spending) and most expensive under HHS's umbrella. In 2003 this agency was expected to spend approximately $47 billion on programs and agency overhead. Approximately 2.2 million families received aid to families with dependent children (AFDC) payments in 1970, but two decades later that number had grown to 4.1 million families. In 1997, new welfare reform legislation was implemented, replacing the AFDC with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), a state-federal program. After peaking at 5.0 million in 1994, the number of families receiving government assistance gradually declined into the early 2000s, reaching 2.1 million in 2001.

In August 1997 The Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) was enacted as Title XXI to the Social Security Act to expand health insurance coverage for low-income children. By the early 2000s, HHS was taking steps to modernize CHIP in a number of different ways, along with welfare, Medicare, and Medicaid. In its fiscal year 2004 budget the agency requested $400 million for this purpose, which would be used over the course of the following decade.

There were an estimated 9,525 government agencies throughout the United States staffed by 425,008 employees in 2005. Administration of social and manpower programs represented 5,978 of these agencies, for 62.8 percent of the total, employing 269,102 employees. The Social Security Administration conducted business from 1,062 agencies, representing 11.1 percent of the industry with a staff of 39,760, while the Administration of Social and Human Resources numbered 836 agencies with 41,316 workers. There were 417 public welfare administration agencies employing 25,561 government workers with the average location employing 81 people. The Equal Employment Opportunity Office government sector had a workforce of 10,782, employing an average of 42 people at each of its 319 offices.

Social Security Administration

The National Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program, commonly called Social Security, is the largest federal income maintenance program. The benefits, administered by the Social Security Administration (SSA), are for retired workers (Social Security Act of 1935), disabled workers (1956 amendment), and their dependents and survivors (1939 amendment). Compulsory tax withholdings from employees, employers, and the self-employed are put in the OASI and DI trust funds to be used for retirement, death or disability benefits, benefits for survivors, vocational rehabilitation, and administrative expenses.

Also administered by the SSA is the Supplemental Security Income program (SSI). Established in 1972, SSI replaced Old-Age Assistance (OAA), Aid to the Blind (AB), and Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled (APTD). The program was intended for people without any other source of income.

Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services

In the early 2000s, some 77 million Americans were beneficiaries of Medicare and Medicaid programs administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). The CMS, formerly known as the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), was renamed on June 14, 2001. Medicare recipients are the aged and disabled. Medicare consists of two programs: hospital insurance (HI) and supplementary medical insurance (SMI). Medicaid is for persons of limited means and is administered by the states.

Other Departments and Programs

The Office for Civil Rights within the Department of Health and Human Services is also responsible for the administration and enforcement of laws (e.g., the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 or the provisions of the Equal Employment Opportunity Acts) prohibiting discrimination in federally assisted health and human services programs.

Unemployment insurance, a federal and state program, provides benefits for the involuntarily unemployed. Worker's compensation, mainly administered by the states, is for insured injured workers. Other work-related programs, such as Black Lung, are administered by the U.S...

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