Gandhian Philosophy and Literature: A Citation Study of Gandhi Marg.

Author:Singh, Shiv

1 Introduction

Scholarly communication is remarkably essential for the understanding of the genesis and progress of disciplines. There are various statistical tools used to explore the databases in library science. Among these, bibliometric have been developed as a tool for measuring and monitoring scientific output (Pritchard (1969), Nicholas et al. (1978)). The statistical models of scholarly communication flow can be established by bibliometric techniques using reference made to other documents i.e. citation analysis. Counting citations is often called "citation analysis". Information about the article's impact on its discipline can be gained by counting the number of times that article has been cited. If an article has a high number of citations, then one can conclude that it has been the subject of discussion or criticism in its discipline. Thus, citation analysis is used to develop relationships between scholarly communications like documents, journals etc. Further it also can be used to identify the flow of topics within and among disciplines (Garfield (1955, 1978, 1979)). There have been numerous study conducted on citation analysis of various single and multiple journals in different fields (Sandison (1989), Clark (2009), Rana (2010), Singh (2013)).

2 Scope

Gandhian Literature for decades was matter of discussion for Gandhi's impact on varied disciplines and nowadays, it has is emerged as a full- fledged new discipline. Looking into this emerging trend and increased publication activity on this subject, the present work is related to citation analysis of the one of the most popular and the oldest journal "Gandhi Marg".

3 Objectives

The prime objectives of this study are to find out the different characteristics of citations in the source journal under consideration, in terms of:

  1. The year wise distribution of citations, the rate of citations per article, and the use pattern of different type of documents cited.

  2. The core books and journals and the classic publications in the field.

  3. The citing 'half-life' of the literature in the field.

  4. The authorship pattern of citations, and highly ranked/core authors in the field.

4 Methodology

In the present study, the journal Gandhi Marg is considered for citation analysis. It was started in 1957 and, it has been publishing Quarterly by Gandhi Peace Foundation, New Delhi. Every issue of the journal has been examined for the period of 1994 to 2013 and all necessary information related to citations is arranged in the form of database specifically designed for citations analysis.

5 Results and Discussion

5.1 Citation Availability in the Journal of "Gandhi Marg"

In order to carry out citation analysis the citations were collected from the papers of the journal Gandhi Marg, for 20 years i.e. during 1994-2013. The database for analysis has been planned on the basis of all essential information associated with citations. The outcome of this came out to 507 articles. Of 507 articles, 56 articles were found without citations or references. So, the remaining 451 articles contributed to 9612 citations after removing duplicate citation (selecting one citation from similar citation(s) repeating in the article) (Table 1).

Table 1 Availability of Citations in the Journal "Gandhi Marg" during 1994-2013 No. of article with No. of articles Total no. of Total no. of citations without citations articles citations 451 56 507 9612 5.2 Year wise Distribution of Citations

The source journal contained 507 articles, comprising of 9612 citations. The highest number of citations in an article was 114, whereas the lowest number of citations was zero (as 56 articles found without citations). The details of year wise distribution of citing articles with corresponding citations and rate of citation per article in a particular year is illustrated in Table 2 and Figure 1. The articles published in years 1994 and 2006 were observed to have the least number of articles i.e. 16. Whereas in year 2009, number of articles published were maximum i.e. 30. In case of citation, the least were observed in year 2002 with 319 citations and maximum were 645 in year 2008. However, it is important to note that the highest value of average citations per article was 36 for the year 2006 and the lowest value was 13.29 for year 2002. Further, the overall average citations per article for the period 1994 to 2013 were 21.31.

5.3 Bibliographical Distribution of Citations

In order to extend the information in the field of any subject every document has its own importance. For communicating and documenting the knowledge for future discussion and reference, the various types of past information channels are being used like books, composite books, journals, reports, proceedings, letter etc. Table 3 gives the range of documents along with their citation analysis and shows that the mostly cited documents are chief sources i.e. books, journals and composite books. These three documents all together have 73.62 % of the total citations. It is interested to note here that 4525 citations out of total 9612 citations were books. It forms about 47.08 % of the total...

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