Fluorinated Gases

AuthorNathan Borgford-Parnell, Stephen Oliver Andersen, and Durwood Zaelke
Page 902 Legal Pathways to Deep Decarbonization in the United States
I. Introduction
e Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP)
report addresses the most potent and prevalent uorinated
greenhouse gases (F-gases), namely hydrouorocarbons
(HFCs), peruorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexauoride
(SF6), and carbon tetrauoride (CF4). e DDPP calls for
a reduction in direct U.S. HFC and hydrochlorouorocar-
bon (HCFC) emissions of 96 million metric tons (MMT)
carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) by 2050, with 64
MMT from the refrigeration and air-conditioning sectors
and 32 MMT from foam, solvent, aerosol, and re pro-
tection uses, representing a 63% and 82% reduction from
reference scenario emissions, respec tively.1 Beyond these
emissions sectors, there are also opportunities to reduce
HFC emissions and emissions of HCFCs that are not yet
Authors’ Note: We thank Kristin Campbell for her valuable assistance
with this chapter
1. J H. W  ., P  D D  
U S, U.S. 2050 R, V 1: T R 52 tbl.
9 (Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project & Energy and Environmental
Economics, Inc., 2015), available at http://usddpp.org/downloads/2014-
phased out from production and consumption under the
Montreal Proto col.2 In addition, there are opportunities
to reduce emissions of chlorouorocarbons (CFCs) and
other ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) that are phased
out from production but continue to be emitted from old
equipment and thermal insulating foam unless recovered
and destroyed. (e Montreal Protocol, which does not
require the recovery and destruc tion of these substances, is
described more fully in Section III.)
e DDPP also calls for drastic ally reduced CO2 emis-
sions from all build ing and appl iance appl ications, includ-
ing through improvements in energy eciency, but does
not account for the signicant opportunity to catalyze
improvements in energy eciency of refrigeration and
air-conditioning equipment and insulating foams where
HCFCs and HFCs are currently utilized.3 e carbon
equivalent footprint for refrigerant emissions depends on
more than the global warming potential (GWP) of the
2. Montreal Protocol on Substances at Deplete the Ozone Layer, Sept.
16, 1987, S. Treaty Doc. No. 100-10, 1522 U.N.T.S. 3 [hereinafter
Montreal Protocol].
3. Guus J.M. Velders et al., Preserving Montreal Protocol Climate Benets by
Limiting HFCs, 335(6071) S 922, 923 (2012).
Chapter 34
Fluorinated Gases
by Nathan Borgford-Parnell, Stephen Oliver Andersen, and Durwood Zaelke
is chapter covers uorinated greenhouse gases, namely hydrouorocarbons (HFCs). e Deep Decarboniza-
tion Pathways Project reports seek to reduce HFC and hydrochlorouorocarbon (HCFC) emissions in the United
States by 96 million metric tons (MMT) CO2 equivalent (CO2eq) by 2050. HFCs replaced chlorouorocarbons
(CFCs) and HCFCs that have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol on Substances at Deplete the
Ozone Layer because they were depleting the stratospheric ozone layer. Due largely to their use as substitutes
for CFCs and HCFCs, HFCs are the fastest growing greenhouse gases in the United States, growing from 0.3
MMT CO2eq in 1990 to 149.4 MMT CO2eq in 2010. EPA, many states, and businesses have already begun
acting to speed the phasedown of HFCs in the United States. ere are a number of legal pathways at the federal,
state, and local levels that would further reduce emissions of HFCs and speed markets to a safe transition to
environmentally friendly alternatives. Additional climate benets can be realized by simultaneously improving
the energy eciency of equipment during the transition away from high-global warming potential refrigerants.

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