Newspaper is one primary sources of scientific communication. It has being playing a vital role in the communication process of scientific research findings and publications in the world. Fanelli (2013) also pointed out that, scientists across the world access to news sources or mass media like everyone else, which suggests that the scientific impact of a research will be boosted by coverage in newspapers and other media etc. Many scientific research activities and findings on various disciplines are published daily in the newspapers across the globe. Newspapers are classified into different category such as General daily newspapers, Sports and Business & Finance newspapers. Among the leading newspapers in the world, Wall Street Journal is one such business focused English-language international daily newspaper which was started in the year 1889 by News Corp (via Dow Jones & Company) in USA. The Wall Street Journal newspaper has an average daily circulation of 1337376 in 2015 (Wall Street Journal, 2017). Wall Street Journal has been playing a major role in dissemination of business information in different parts of the world. Thus, citation analysis of Wall Street Journal newspaper is vital to find out its relevance in scholarly publications.
Citation analysis is commonly used bibliometrics method to measure the growth of particular subjects or discipline. Citation analysis is generally carried out (a) to find out the no. of citations received by particular subject or discipline (b) to find out the literature (documents type) used as citation in scholarly publications. Citation analysis is used to find pattern of networking among scientific papers (Gupta, 1977). The underlying principle of citation analysis is that, the significance of scientific paper can be measured by counting the citations received by the particular research paper (Schoonbaert & Roelants, 1996). Bauer & Backkalbasi (2005) too stated that citation analysis is the analysis of data derived from references cited in references or bibliographies of scholarly publications. It is an important tool used to trace scholarly research in specific discipline. Many earlier studies on citation was carried out by Lin & Nelson (1969); Aravinda & Reddy (1989); Verma (1994); Ardanuy, Urbano & Quintana (2009); Chi & Dinkel (2013) on used of books as main sources of citations in scholarly publications. In similar citation studies, Musib (1986); Arora & Kaur (1994); Mubeen (1996); Meera & Rajyalakshmi (1997); Brooch, Sharma & Begum (1999); Suryanarayana (2000); Dixit & Katare (2007); Raut, Sahu & Ganguly (2008); Tsay (2008); Sudhier (2009); Hadagali, Kumbar & Benahal (2009); Ezema & Kelley & Sen (2014); Fabunmi (2015); Husain & Mushtaq (2015); Bala & Singh (2015) studied used of journals as main source of citations in scholarly publications.
Though many citation studies have been carried out to find out the use of different document forms as a source of citations in scholarly publications, it is apparent that studies on Wall Street Journal newspaper as citation source in particular have not been carried out so far by researchers. Thus, this study tries to bridge the gap using citation analysis to identify the role of Wall Street Journal newspaper in scholarly publications.
The objectives of the study are:
i. To examine the citation pattern of Wall Street Journal newspaper during 2001- 2010
ii. To find out types of documents citing Wall Street Journal newspaper
iii. To study the flow of Wall Street Journal newspaper information in scholarly publications
Sources of data
There are many bibliographic databases covering different disciplines. Web of Science and Scopus are such two popular databases. Many authors have carried out citation studies using Web of Science and Scopus database. Erfanmanesh, Didegah & Omidvar (2010); Mishra, Panda & Goswami (2010); Upadhye, Kademani, Mohan & Bhanumurthy (2012); Thapar & Sengar (2013); Baskaran (2014); Sagar, Kademani & Bhanumurthy (2014); Ravikumar and Agrahari, (2015) carried citation studies to find out the citation patterns, documents, countries, authors and subjects using Web of Science database. Sagar, Kademani, Garg & Kumar (2010); Gupta, Bala & Kshitig (2012); Gupta, Kumbar & Gupta (2013) too carried similar citation studies to find out the citation patterns, documents, countries, authors and subjects using Scopus database.
Haddow & Genoni (2010) in their studies mentioned that, Web of Science and Scopus it is difficult to separate in terms of preferred source. It appears from the previous research that neither source is best for all citation needs and that their usefulness is dependent upon subject areas and the age of publications. Thus, for the present study Web of Science will be used as the source for data collection to analyze the citation of Wall street journal newspaper in scholarly publications.
The study used Web of Science database to extract relevant data on Wall Street Journal newspaper citation during 2001-2010. The relevant data was downloaded during January, 2016, from Web of Science core collection. The search string "Cited Reference Search" "Cited work" and the keywords "Wall Street Journal" and "The Wall Street Journal" were used to download the relevant data for the study. During downloading relevant data, the citations of only six years including the year of newspaper article publication in Wall Street Journal time was considered (i.e. citation from 2001-2006 was considered to find out the citations of Wall Street Journal newspaper article of 2001). Haddow & Genoni, (2010) too have adopted citation gap of six years in their citation study on Australian social science journals. This method was carried out keeping in mind to give equal time period for citing a newspaper article in scholarly publications and to avoid bias in data collection since the data is considered only upto 31st December, 2015. During the study period there were 3810 records indexed in Web of Science upto 31st December, 2015. Out of 3810 records, only 3774 records having a total of 3893 citations were found with complete information. in the present study analysis is carried out for 3774 records having 3893 citations. The downloaded data was transferred into excel sheet and fitted into the SPSS software for the analysis and interpretation of the result.
In this study, the method adopted by Ravikumar and Agrahari, (2015) for deriving the citing countries and subjects was used. Thus, only the first author's affiliated institution was considered to derive the citing countries of Wall Street Journal newspaper. Further only the first subject indexed in Web of Science is also considered to derive the different subjects citing Wall Street Journal newspaper during the study period.
Data analysis and interpretation
Citation of Wall Street Journal newspaper in scholarly publications was examined to find out its importance as a citation source by researchers. The data analysis is carried out for 3774 records having 3893 citations in different scholarly publications of Wall Street Journal during 2001-2010, indexed in Web of Science upto 31st December, 2015. However, these numbers of citations may change as the coverage of publications in the Web of Science is regularly updated.
Citation Pattern of Wall Street Journal
Scanning the Wall Street Journal newspaper articles and the citations during ten years i.e. during 2001-2010 period shows that there is gradual increase in citing Wall Street Journal in scholarly publications except in the year 2003 with 132 (3.39%) citations. The highest citation of Wall Street Journal was 1107 (28.44%) during the year 2010, and the lowest was 85 (2.18%) citations in the year 2001, in different scholarly publications. The no. of articles indexed year-wise and the no. of scholarly publications citing Wall Street Journal newspaper is shown below in Table-1.
Distribution of different documents types citing Wall street journal
From the present study it is observed that, Wall Street Journal is highly cited in journals articles 3213 (82.53%) followed by review articles 294 (7.55%), editorial materials 248 (6.37%), Proceeding 84 (2.16%), book review 20 (0.51%), letter 18 (0.46%), book chapter 11 (0.28), News Item 3 (0.08), Art Exhibit Review 1(0.03%) and Record Review 1 (0.03%).
The distribution of different types of documents citing Wall Street Journal newspaper during 2001-2010 is shown above in table-2. Wall Street Journal newspaper is most frequently cited in journal articles during the study period.
Scholarly publications citing Wall Street Journal
The study found that altogether there are 1573 scholarly publications citing Wall Street Journal during 2001-2010. There are 17 journals within top 10 journals citing Wall Street Journal, contributing 10.17% citations during the period. Below the top 10 ranked journals citing Wall street journal newspaper is shown below in table-3.
Among the top 10 journals, Wall Street Journal newspaper was cited highly in Journal of Business Ethics (Netherlands) having 53 (1.36%) citations, followed by Management Science (USA) having 34 (0.87%) citations, Business Lawyer (USA) & Fordham Law Review (USA) having 29 (0.74%), Accounting Review (USA) having 25 (0.64), Washington Quarterly (USA) having 23 (0.59%) citations. Wall Street Journal newspaper is cited more in journals from United States.
Subjects citing Wall street journal
The study observed that, there are 132 subjects citing Wall Street Journal newspaper during this period. Out of 3893 citations, 2933 (78.89%) citations are cited by 49 subjects belonging to Arts and Social Sciences and 960 (21.11%) citations are cited by 83 subjects belonging to Science and Technology. Among the Arts and Social Sciences, Wall Street Journal is highly cited in Business with 675 (23.01%) followed by Law with 511 (17.42%), Economics with 265 (9.04%) citations. and among the...