Roadmapping is one of strategic technology management toolkits which play an important role in supporting a wide range of technology management decisions and processes. It is a strategic planning tool in industry and government which is widely recognized and acknowledged (Phaal et al., 2016; Vatananan and Gerdsri, 2012; Cho et al., 2016). The key factors, leading to a successful Roadmapping, are the right process, data and people (Vatananan and Gerdsri, 2012). Phaal et al. (2001) describes the factors that contribute to successful Roadmapping including clear business need, desire to develop effective business processes, company culture, politics supported participation, the right people involved, commitment from top management, effective tools/techniques/methods, effective facilitation training, and effective process.
The Roadmapping process runs as workshop-based whereby the key stakeholders and domain experts are brought together to capture, share, and structure the knowledge (Kerr et al., 2013; Kerr et al., 2012; Toro-Jarrin et al., 2016; Yasunaga et al., 2009; Cho et al., 2016). It also promotes team interaction and participation by improving communication, engagement, and ownership within the process. However, in terms of the applicable scope of the workshop-based approach, the default situation is a physical or face-to-face (F2F) meeting. There are space and time limitations that decrease the degree of participation in the Roadmapping process. The real-time online tools or electronic approach can support the process as mechanisms which allow participation from individuals who are unable to attend the meeting and need a chance to give their inputs and get involved in the Roadmapping process (Kerr et al., 2013).
There are research opportunities mentioned on Roadmapping with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported, e.g. social networking and web-based form of collaboration (Lee et al., 2012), ICT-based tools for development of foresight (Keller and Von der Gracht, 2014), ICT-supported Roadmapping for collaboration strategic planning (Rohrbeck et al., 2015), blended workshops or online engagement (Raford, 2015), and the blend of human and digital works. Therefore, there are potentials to incorporate electronic work with human into Roadmapping approach.
Regarding to factors influencing the adoption of Roadmapping in electronic approach, it is still an area of under-explored topic. Thus, this study intends to pinpoint and prioritize the significant factors influencing the adoption of electronic Roadmapping in organization. Appropriate decision-making procedures and evaluation criteria are essential, and quantitative tools should be integrated prior to the selection process (Tang et al., 2014). Expert checks (Wendelken et al., 2014) and the Analytical Hierarchy Process: AHP (Ishizaka and Labib, 2011; Russo and Camanho, 2015; Saaty, 2008) are used to analyse factor weights and prioritize the selected factors. In this study, an expert checks-AHP methodology is employed to establish a measurement system when selecting and prioritizing key factors. The following section discusses relevant literatures. The methodology, results, and discussions are, then, presented. They bring the major findings, conclusions and recommendation for future research of this study.
This chapter provides background information to this study. It provides descriptions, characteristics, and the current state of Roadmapping, as well as an overview of related previous studies to support this study.
Roadmapping is a human-centric strategic management technique that provides the opportunity to participate with another person or group aimed towards co-created strategic planning solutions (Kerr et al., 2013). It is also a collaborative approach to introduce organizational change (Linnenluecke et al., 2017) and manage the Research and Development (R&D) planning, as well as to identify the future of technological progress at organizations (Cho et al., 2016). Roadmapping enables different stakeholder groups to reach a consensus on how to appropriately move a creative idea and vision forward (Kerr et al., 2017). The Roadmapping process focuses on the sharing of perspectives among participants which leads to an improved communication, new insights, creativity, learning, knowledge, and innovation (Yoon et al., 2017).
Typically, the development of roadmaps is iterative process and workshop-based involving periodic review and improvement based on human interaction through meetings and workshops. Contributions from individuals and teams are necessary to ensure the successful implementation of a project or process in an organization. Key stakeholders involved in Roadmapping implementation come from different levels in their organization, have different areas of expertise, and come from both inside and outside of the organization. In summary, the Roadmapping process can be customized to suit the particular application in terms of both architecture and process (Phaal et al., 2003).
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-Supported Roadmapping
ICT has a critical role in supporting organizations to achieve their goals. It allows a large group of users with rich content and functionalities (Rohrbeck et al., 2015). A people-technology hybrid approach can act as a key source for promoting organizational innovation and creativity by supporting of ICT, social media and people (Kandampully et al., 2016) on collaborative platform which can be either a face-to-face (F2F) or electronic platform (Maciuliene and Skarzauskiene, 2016; Romero and Molina, 2011). Lee et al. (2012) suggested that the use of social networking and web-based forms of collaboration would enhance roadmap credibility. ICT-based tools will be the driving forces in the future development of foresight support systems (Keller and Von der Gracht, 2014), and ICT-based Roadmapping will enhance coordination and productivity of planning activities (Rohrbeck et al., 2015). Raford (2015) suggested that the study of encouraging interactive socialization in F2F, online settings in the form of blended workshops or online engagement should be conducted. Additionally, Phaal (2018) suggested that R&D on application software and digital technologies should continue, which would support Roadmapping and help balancing the blend of human and digital work. Wahl and Kitchel (2016) described the internet-based collaboration tools organized by asynchronous use (e.g. email and discussion boards), synchronous use (e.g. voice over internet protocol, web conferencing, and real-time collaboration), and hybrid use (e.g. text messaging and instant messages). In this respect, it is proven that ICT can connect people across space and time in one common environment (Gonzalez-Rojas et al., 2016) which is ubiquitous and accessible for anyone from any place at any time by any device.
As shown in the previous studies mentioned above, the ICT-supported Roadmapping can be implemented using a collaboration platform, e.g. online communities and social networks. Electronic (e)-Collaboration with ICT-enabled can promote innovative co-creation by using collaboration and communication through online tools, mobile applications, and devices (Boling et al., 2014; Wong et al., 2016).
According to Kock et al. (2001), e-Collaboration is considered as collaboration among individuals engaged in a common task using technologies, not only limited to Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) or Computer Supported...