Knowledge is an important component of any business and society as it enables businesses to change according to the needs and requirements of the customers and economic conditions of regions. Knowledge develops a society of the organization based on its culture and values (Geisler & Wickramasinghe, 2015; Gaitanaru, 2019). Based on knowledge, individual entities in the organization adopt these values and culture and use external sources to establish their learning processes as well as share it around the workplace (Wiewiora et al., 2013). These learning establish a new basis in the culture and organization. Knowledge develops culture and culture brings in knowledge, and the knowledge workers productivity becomes the striking challenge for the management discipline (Shujahat et al., 2019).
The higher education platform of universities across the world is going through change and management of course works that allow both innovation and representation of the areas they cover (Allen & Seaman, 2013). The educational institutes like other organization are the structure of individually placed within the organization based on their expertise and professional capabilities. These capabilities and expertise are more closely bonded with the qualification and the ability to learn and ability to deliver as well (Bleiklie, 2014). In the dynamic environment of today where professional and practical education are very much connected with the industrial changes and economic outturn. The need for academician's effective learning process and quick adaptation is imminent.
As more and more subjects are now offered in the higher education institutes, hence the quality of the education is also focused as a major concern. The learning commitment of the academicians to adapt and learn new methods of delivery of the course content and changes in such to provide up to date professional guideline to their students and researchers (Veletsianos et al., 2013). As an institution where behavioral changes define the success of the workplace, the educational institutes need to develop knowledge bridges with the environment, customers, competitors, and changing economic conditions of the country. The collection of information is not enough to develop the sound competitive ground for higher education students but also to use this information in forming methods to share and incorporate such knowledge in the workplace environment that assures cohesion and linearity with sufficient window of innovation (Fullwood et al., 2013). There have been a significant number of researches in the service sector where the importance of knowledge is discussed and explored. Knowledge management is important for the development of the service sector by using the innovative tools (Nadeem & Jaffri, 2005).
The education sector of the Middle East is aware of the service quality requirements. Previous literature from Middle East service sector supports the rising quality improvement needs. International education standard has jumped into the Wave II of quality that is based on 'Change Management' and 'Knowledge Management' in the organization to prove quality standards (Sallis, 2014). Knowledge management, and total quality management system has essential importance for the organizations (Ribiere & Khorranshahgol, 2004). To satisfy students and other stakeholders in the education sector, the quality demanded can be justified by employee commitment, development of skills, improved ability, effective training process and employee confidence to provide better solutions to the customers (Hazelkorn, 2015). Complementing human resource practices and creation of a knowledge-based culture with motivational base reward systems and career development, enables the service sector to perform better (Irfan et al., 2009). The use of knowledge with all the components to make a healthy culture of the knowledge management system is the requirement of better performance in the industry. It is important to consider that; the education industry is included in the service sectors. It has far more significant liability towards its stakeholders that include the immediate students, teachers, and partners in education, research centers and the society itself (Altbach, 2015). The education sector relates to prominent factors as for learning and innovation is concerned. The first prominent factor is the ability of the academicians and their flexibility in accepting changes and going through these changes to develop something significant as a product. This product
in return is delivered to the students and indirectly incorporated in the industry and economy eventually (Shah, 2016). The progress of this cycle dependent on the academicians learning and capabilities and most prominently on their commitment and other behavioral aspects such as self-efficacy and adaptability (Khan et al., 2014).
The motivation of this study is to fill in the gaps in previous literature focused on the service sector. The future recommendations given in the service sector research work conducted by (Almahamid et al., 2010) focus on knowledge sharing practices with the dynamic environment and the study of the proposed model with other variables that ultimately improve performance. Current study aims to find the relationship between knowledge sharing practices, learning commitment of employees, employee's adaptability and satisfaction. The current study proposes to study the dynamic environment impact on the relationship of knowledge sharing practices, adaptability and employee capabilities including knowledge, skills, and abilities. Education sector signifies the elements of collaboration, work, and satisfaction that lead to innovation and performance like other service industries (Ali & Panatik, 2015). The current study examines the development of self-efficacy of employees in response to the enhancement of adaptability, responsiveness, and capabilities of employees. Based on the need to make employees responsive towards changes in the environment on time to capture opportunities and support the process of continuous knowledge sharing. This study targets the development of human's perception, confidence, and trust that enables employees to perform better to achieve more in a dynamic work setting. The factors that are involved in this development are also studied as mediating variables in the relationship that are adaptability, responsiveness, and capabilities (Jones et al., 2005). Employee's adaptability and responsiveness includes the level of change that an employee can opt with the ongoing pace, while responsiveness comes next to adaptability. Responsiveness does not develop on its own; rather it is supported by other constructs, such as an ability to identify when to respond? What to respond? How to respond? These questions are studied in the support of the knowledge sharing system. Other factor under study that helps in the development of employee self-efficacy is the capability of the employee. The capability of an employee includes skills, abilities, and knowledge regarding areas of operation. In order to be responsive and practical in the area, one should acquire the needed skills and develop the required abilities for task performance where both skills and abilities are based on knowledge (Akhavan et al., 2014).
Middle East education sector needs to strengthen the knowledge system in respect of the development of human capital (Aubert & Reiffers, 2004). Being the service-oriented sector universities provide help and consultation apart from education services in multiple specialized areas. This angle needs more clarity and confidence from the university's side to the students due to outcomes involved that directly affect the industry, and the society at large. Like all other sectors, education sector is changing and expanding every day. Only improving quality on the processes and documentation is not enough (Tobin, 2015; Bentley, 2012), academicians and educational employees should be ready and capable to absorb changes. The objective of current research is to explore the relationship of knowledge sharing practices i.e., employee learning commitment and self-efficacy, in addition to testing the mediating effect of developmental variables, such as employee adaptability, responsiveness to change and employee capabilities. There are three main research questions of this study: (a) What effects doe's employee learning commitment developed by knowledge sharing practices has on employee adaptability and responsiveness in a dynamic environment? (b) What effects does employee leaning commitment has on employee capabilities development? (c) What is the effect of employee learning commitment and capabilities on employee self-efficacy development?
This study contributes to the growing literature of knowledge management and employee self-efficacy, particularly with reference to educational industry of Middle East. It has important practical implications, after reading the research findings educational institutions can focus of their knowledge management process and the best level of employee self-efficacy. Institutions can formulate and implement the needed strategies about the studied concepts to gain competitive advantage. As the study is based on the theory of knowledge management introduced by (Nonaka, & Takeuchi, 1996), hence will verify introduced concept of knowledge and knowledge management. Furthermore, the study is significant with respect to the education sector, as it revolves around the question of service quality improvement. Academicians are directly responsible for quality education and its development. In this regard, the human capital in the education sector should be improved and developed using different trainings, development, and others mechanisms (Hanushek, 2013). Following the concept, the most effective part is the mindset of employees, about can they perform in rapidly...