The current conditions of the Russian economy are characterized by increasing external threats caused by global technological challenges and high turbulence of the political system. The risks of maintaining the technological lag of the Russian industry are increased by dependence on energy exports and the presence of unresolved structural problems of sectorial and spatial development (Kochetkov et al., 2017). In modern Russian conditions, the development of innovative enterprises remains a key area of initiation of new economic growth points in high-tech industries. The problems of practical implementation of the innovative approach to the modernization of regional economic systems are actualized by the need for accelerated implementation of the policy of import substitution and increase in the production of high-tech products (Boush et al., 2016). The insufficient number of successful cluster initiatives is due to the low demand for innovations from industrial enterprises, the underdeveloped institutions of technology transfer and the interaction of the main subjects of innovation processes (Dzhindzholia et al., 2015). Improving the management efficiency of the processes of innovative transformation of the economy solves the problems of infrastructure and investment support of innovative processes (Moser, 2016; Kormishkin et al., 2016). The optimal solution of these problems is proposed based on the existing innovation clusters and individual large enterprises (Gimadeeva, 2015; Pachura, 2015).
The concept of the innovation cluster and the corresponding methodological tools are proposed as a theoretical and methodological basis for the structural optimization of innovative processes in the aspect of the spatial development of the Russian Federation. Methodological approach of the study focuses on the basic organizational model of cluster (Solvell, 2009), the model of cluster and regional specialization (Feser, 1998; Porter, 2003; Pisano & Shih, 2012), the institutional model of the cluster (Ketels et al., 2012). As a criterion of specialization of the regional economic system in certain types of economic activity, it is proposed to use the localization coefficient of production. It is proposed to use Localization coefficient ([K.sub.L]) as the base criterion of specialization of the regional economy on certain types of economic activity. Localization coefficient ([K.sub.L]) for certain types of economic activity in the region is the ratio of the proportion of economic activity in the economic structure of the region to the specific gravity of economic...