Disability Discrimination

AuthorBryan P. Neal & Micah R. Prude
Pages785-851
21-785
Chapter 21
DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION
By Bryan P. Neal & Micah R. Prude
21:1. GOVERNING STATUTES, REGULATIONS, AGENCY INTERPRETATIONS
A. Applicable Statutes
1. Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990
2. Rehabilitation Act of 1973
3. Chapter 21 of Texas Labor Code
B. Administrative Regulations and Agency Interpretations
1. EEOC Regulations
2. EEOC Interpretive Guidance Accompanying Regulations
3. EEOC Compliance Manual and Other Guidance
4. EEOC Technical Assistance Manual
5. Chapter 21 Regulations
21:2. COVERAGE ISSUES
A. Covered Entities
B. Individual Liability
C. Covered Employees
21:3. ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES
21:4. EXISTENCE OF DISABILITY
A. “Disability” Defined
B. “Actual Disability”
1. Physical or Mental Impairment
2. Major Life Activities
3. “Substantially Limits” Major Life Activity
a. Substantially Limited in Major Life Activity Other Than Working
b. Substantially Limited in Major Life Activity of Working
4. Use of Experts
C. “Record-of” Disability
D. “Regarded-as” Disability
Texas employmenT law 21-786
E. Exclusions From Definition of Disability
1. ADA
2. Chapter 21
21:5. QUALIFIED INDIVIDUAL
A. Basic Standards Defined
B. Essential Functions
1. Determining What Is Essential
2. Attendance and Work Location
C. Safety Issues/Direct Threat
1. Burden of Proof
2. Assessing Direct Threat
3. Risk to Disabled Employee
D. Effect of Applications for Social Security or Other Disability Benefits
E. Refusing Reasonable Accommodation
21:6. REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION
A. Definition
B. Burden of Proof
C. Duty Does Not Apply to Regarded-As Disabilities
D. Knowledge of Limitation From Disability Required
E. The Accommodation Process
1. Employee’s Burden to Request
2. Selection of Particular Accommodation
3. Changing Accommodations
F. Particular Accommodations
1. Job Restructuring
2. Transfers to Other Positions and Light Duty
a. ADA
b. Chapter 21/Rehabilitation Act
3. Leaves of Absence
G. Accommodations That Conflict With Collective Bargaining Agreements
H. Accommodations That Conflict With Non-Collectively Bargained Seniority Systems
I. Effect of Employer Exceeding Reasonable Accommodation Requirement
J. Undue Hardship Defense
21-787 DisabiliTy DisCriminaTion
21:7. OTHER TYPES OF UNLAWFUL DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION
A. Disparate Treatment
1. Elements and Methods of Proof
2. Causation Standard
a. ADA
b. Chapter 21
3. Mixed-Motive Analysis
4. Adverse Action Related to But Not “Because of” a Disability
B. Disparate Impact and Qualification Standards
1. ADA
2. Chapter 21
C. Harassment
D. Association With Individual With a Disability
E. Employer Qualification Testing
F. Medical Examinations and Inquiries
1. Limitations Apply Only to Qualified Individuals With Disabilities
2. Post-Hiring Medical Examinations and Inquiries
3. Confidentiality
4. Drug Testing
5. Requirement of Harm
G. Discrimination Through Contractual Arrangements
H. Discrimination in Employee Benefits
1. Health Insurance Benefits
2. Disability Insurance Benefit Plans
a. Benefit Parity
b. Qualified Individual Requirement
3. ADA Title III Issues
4. Special Insurance Protections
I. Retaliation
1. Elements and Burdens of Proof
2. Protected Activity
3. Adverse Employment Action
4. Causal Connection
J. Interference, Coercion, or Intimidation
21:8. REMEDIES

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