Development of Multilingual Resource Management Mechanisms for Libraries.

Author:Mandal, Sukumar

1.0 Introduction

Development of multilingual in domain specific cluster in one of the important tasks for two purposes housekeeping operations and information retrieval system to the users as well as librarians. Most of the college libraries are suffering to managed their multilingual documents and users want to Bengali language in different subject areas including Bengali, physics, chemistry, geography, history and etc. In most of the library management softwares not supported the multilingual documents but this research work tries to solved this problem through Koha. Now, in college libraries users are finding their necessary documents in the bibliographic descriptions including author, title, subject and others fields in Bengali language. This will helpful for the users in the libraries. In the last decade, the use of Bengali scripts in daily computer usage has gained wide acceptance in India. Wide ranges of Bengali software have been developed so far to meet the ever-growing demand in the local market (Alshawi, 1992). From the very beginning, Indian software developers followed two different paths. One group started writing software from the scratch, while the other group tried to embed Bengali scripts in popular international software (Angelov, 2008). But it is now well established that due to the limited market size and massive development and upgrading cost involved in writing software from the scratch, embedding Bengali scripts is the most feasible way (Angelov, 2009). This research study focuses primarily on developing a Bengali scripting system capable of sorting Bengali texts linguistically. Although the solution presented in this paper puts no restriction over the method of implementation, we have preferred, for obvious reasons, to embed our solution in Ubuntu interface (Angelov & Ranta, 2009).

Here, in this research paper proved that no completely linguistically sorted Bengali coding scheme exists. We have further proved that it is also not possible to define any rule to derive the complete linguistic order from any partially linguistically ordered Bengali coding scheme (Bar-Hillel, 1964). Based on the nature of the mapping functions, whether any information is lost in transformations or not, two solutions are suggested (Beckert, Hahnle, & Schmitt, 2007). Both of the solutions employ conversion tables to handle the complexity associated with the compound letters. In the second solution we have introduced an internal coding scheme, in addition to the conventional coding scheme, to provide non-lossy transformations (Bender & Flickinger, 2005). This solution gives us some extra benefits (Cook, 1999). Bengali texts, written in a completely unordered coding scheme, can now be sorted. Moreover, based on the fact that non-lossy transformations are reversible, we have developed an application to convert Bengali texts among different coding schemes.

The European Digital Library (TEL) and the EDL project generated through the survey of users based on the analysis of log files for user requirements. It is found that weblogs is the search engine where user prepare the own blog and publish it in Internet for access the updated documents by really simple syndication feeds. In this section this problem is to be solved through lifera on Ubuntu operating system. Now a days it is also possible to access the institutional portals by federated search system for the users in college libraries (Janssen, 2003). Translate the documents from the google translator and google input tool in web environment for the document and resources available in Internet or in offline mode (Treble CLEF, 2008). Most of the users are to be interested in multilingual related documents becasuse they have to studies their own languages from the open source software, open standards and open source tools. Metadata is fundamental to persons, organizations, machines, and an array of enterprises that are increasingly turning to the Web and electronic communication for disseminating and accessing information. Substantiating the growth is the development of metadata schemas supporting proects ranging from restricted corporate websites to freely accessible digital libraries; experimentation with a range of metadata creation tools and techniques; advancements in the development of the semantic web; and an unprecedented developing of diverse communities with a vested interest in resource management and discovery.

UNESCO (2003) Recommendations: The idea of multilingual is to be changed from past to present. In modern age peoples are communicate to each other in different languages, in such a way here require the status of language of this World. Most of the peoples is spoken in English language , yet requirements of multilingual concept in databases to display the metedata in the field of digital library. On the other hand also requirements of multilingual bibligraphic and authority information for the college users to access, downloaded the particular resources available in databases. The application is predominantly to the data in motion, objects that users do not physically hold, whose description resides as a part of the object, rather than separately in a library catalogue. Metadata is no longer a new concept. Cataloguers have been employing it as descriptive method for decades as MARC records in OPACs or as card in catalogs. The most innovative aspect of it now is that it has emerged multitude of methods which employ it and the area in which it is being used. TEI, GILS and Dublin Core metadata each comes from a different community or as a collaboration of communities in order to attempt to describe a very slippery publication medium. It is not unlike the chaotic times when printing was first invented. The search is definitely towards an emerging and mutable publication medium for which users have few definitive answers because users have not discovered all of the question yet. As text publishing models increasingly incorporate electronic access and delivery into their paradigm, it becomes clear that metadata becomes included in the editorial decisions involved in the creation of the texts. Thus, this transformation from the old model of simply publishing the text in different languages and leaving the creation of metadata description in the hands of outside agencies, such as libraries or, more specifically, cataloguers. The Greenstone software can be used to serve collections over the World Wide Web. Greenstone can be made available, in precisely the same form, on CD-ROM. The user interface is through a standard web browser (Mozilla) and the interaction is identical to accessing the multilingual collections on the web except that response times are more predictable. Dublin Core metadata element sets is also support the multilingual resource management mechnism. DSpace support html format to manage the multilingual both the admin and user interfaces. Moreover, multilingual concept apply in six basic domain specific cluster to access, download and upload the bibliographic and metadata related information for the users in college libraries. Different search techniques is also applicable in different clusters to manage the multilingual resources in different item types by open source software, open standards and open source tools.

The main objectives of this research paper is as follows:

To designing the framework in Unicode--compliant environment for supporting multilingual document processing and retrieval with special reference to Bengali script for easy implementation in libraries.

1.1 Multilingual Components for libraries

Multilingual resource managed through open source tools and standards. There are many standards are available in multilingual for the domain specific cluster in the Libraries. This research paper has select the Unicode based open softwares in six domain specific cluster like integrated library system cluster, digital media archiving cluster, content management system cluster, learning content management system, federated search system and college communication and interaction. The components of multilingual standards are to be represents in the table-1 for designing the multilingual resources in the college libraries.

Interoperability is a critical problem in the network environment especially when we are talking about the Digital Libraries with increase in number of diverse computer systems, software applications, file formats, information resources and users(Oakes & Xu, 2009). But it becomes more critical problem in Indian digital libraries, with having those much differences it has another sharing problem of resources from one language to another as resources at Indian libraries are present in many Indian languages viz. English, Hindi, Sanskrit, Marathi, Gujarati, Oriya, Bengali, Punjabi etc (Paolillo, Pimienta & Prado, 2007). Thus it has problem of interoperability between multilingual digital library resources. However there are so many true type fonts are being used to represent the Indian languages on web. But that's not sufficient tool to implement the multilingual (Peters, Braschler & Clough, 2012). ISCII is also being used as a standard to represent the Indian languages on the web as well on the database part. At the same time, users with other native languages than that of the country under consideration may need more international languages, as for example, English Hindi or Bengali.

1.2 Development of Multilingual Environment for libraries

In general, the API of the middle layer should follow the Open--Closed principle, which states that software entities (modules) should be open for extensions, but closed to modifications. Being the system software, IM frameworks make extensive use of services provide by modern operating system (Shokouhi & Si, 2011). There are many languages are available in six cluster like integrated library system cluster, content management system cluster, college communication...

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