Development and dissemination of clean lighting: model law on lighting for developed countries.

Author:Guruswamy, Lakshman
 
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A BILL

To promote the development and deployment of lighting products to save lives, improve livelihoods, protect children, empower women, and combat climate change by creating a thriving global market for clean, affordable, and efficient indoor lighting solutions, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the [legislative organ] of the [developed country] assembled,

[section] 1. Short Title

This Act may be cited as the "Development and Dissemination of Clean Lighting Act of [year]."

Effective Date. This Act becomes effective on [date],

[section] 2. Findings

[Legislative organ] finds that:

(1) [Name of country] is a member of the community of nations that has accepted well-recognized principles of international law and policy establishing (A) the right of developing countries to sustainable development;

(B) the common but differentiated legal and moral rights of [name of country] and other developed nations to institutionally, financially, and technologically support sustainable development among developing countries by alleviating energy poverty and providing access to safe and sustainable lighting products; and

(C) that there is an urgent and pressing need to promote the use of renewable energy resources and technologies to supply energy needs, including lighting.

(2) [Name of country] seeks to support sustainable and renewable development and carry out its common but differentiated legal and moral responsibility (CBDR) pertaining to energy poverty and access to safe and sustainable lighting products through this Act.

(3) It is estimated that of the 1.5 billion people worldwide without access to electricity, most rely on kerosene for illumination.

(4) The use of kerosene for lighting generates indoor air pollution, contributing to the deaths of 1.8 million people per year. Kerosene fires kill more than 1 million people per year, and children suffer health problems and die from the accidental ingestion of kerosene.

(5) Lighting fuels, such as kerosene, are nonrenewable sources of energy. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences estimates that 77 billion liters of liquid fuel, mostly kerosene, are used annually to light houses without electricity.

(6) The burning of kerosene for lighting in developed countries is estimated to cause the emission of 223 tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere per year, contributing to global climate change. Kerosene lamps are also major emitters of black carbon, which is both dangerous when inhaled and a major agent of climate change.

(7) Without adequate indoor lighting, women and children cannot engage in educational or economic activities after dark. Lack of adequate lighting also contributes to insecurity and danger at night.

(8) Explosions and fires from kerosene-related accidents lead to hundreds of thousands of bum deaths each year, and bum survivors often sustain permanent injuries ranging from debilitating scarring to loss of movement.

(9) The development and deployment of improved indoor lighting products is essential for achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal#7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.

(10) Improved indoor lighting products positively impact the quality of life and the environment by--

(A) Enabling women and children to engage in educational and economic endeavors after dark;

(B) Promoting gender equality and women's empowerment;

(C) Improving health and safety;

(D) Advancing environmental stability by reducing reliance on fossil fuels;

(E) Reducing contributions to global climate change; and

(F) Ensuring and facilitating access and delivery of medical care, particularly endeavors after dark.

[section] 3. Policy

It is the policy of [name of country] to--

(1) Encourage universal access to lighting;

(2) Encourage energy supplies from renewable and sustainable resources;

(3) Encourage national and international efforts to promote, distribute, enable, and maintain universal access to lighting;

(4) Encourage national and international research, development, and deployment of lighting products;

(5) Encourage research, development, and deployment of safe lighting products which are safe and utilize renewable energy generation sources;

(6) Encourage the establishment of National Minimum Quality and PerformanceStandards such as United Laboratories or IEEE accepted standards; and

(7) Encourage technology transfer of renewable and sustainable energy development and universal access to lightning.

[section] 4. Definitions

In this Act:

(1) "Lighting Product" means one that:

(A) employs appropriate durable, affordable, renewable, harmless, and accessible sustainable energy technologies;

(B) has been prototypically demonstrated, tested, and certified as meeting (i) Brightness Standards; and

(ii) indoor ambient air quality standards; or

(iii) if a developing country determines that indoor ambient air quality standards cannot be achieved, the reasonable interim air quality standards established by the developing country that improve existing indoor ambient air quality; and

(C) meets minimum durability standards based on the needs and conditions of such developing country and its peoples.

(2) "Brightness Standards" means that lighting products for general household use must provide an output of 20 lumens or illuminate an area equal to 2 sheets of paper at 25 lux.

[section] 5. Lighting Product Manufacturing, Promotion, and Distribution

(a) In General.

There is established within the [ministry or agency for international aid] a Lighting Product Manufacturing and Distribution Program.

(b) Purpose.

The purpose of the program established by subsection (a) is to provide international partnerships and local entrepreneurs with financial, institutional, and technological assistance to develop, manufacture, promote, distribute, and maintain certified safe, improved lighting products and charging stations in developing countries.

(c) Funding.

(1) The program established by subsection (a) shall be funded in the amount of $15,000,000 each year for 10 years.

(2) Criteria--The administrator of the program established by subsection

(a) shall establish criteria for the use of funds provided by paragraph (1) to carry out the purpose of the program.

(3) Consultation--The criteria established under paragraph (2) shall be developed in consultation with:

(A) governmental and community leaders in developing countries;

(B) indigenous and affected populations and other stakeholders;

(C) non-governmental organizations working to promote safe and sustainable indoor lighting;

(D) [other relevant ministries or agencies within the developed country];

and

(E) the interested public.

(4) Notice and Comment--The administrator of the program established by subsection (a) shall provide public notice and an opportunity for any interested party to comment on any proposal to this section or amendments thereto; (b) agency for receiving comments shall respond in a timely manner.

(5) Availability of funds--The funding provided by paragraph (1) shall be available to offices or programs within the [appropriate agency or agencies within the ministry for international aid] in accordance with

(A) the criteria established under paragraph (2); and

(B) such other rules as are established by the [agency head].

(6) Grants and other aid -The program established by subsection (a) may, in accordance with the criteria established under paragraph (2) and without the need for any matching or base funds, use up to 20 percent of the funding provided by paragraph (1) to provide grants, loans, or other methods of financial support to businesses and other non-governmental organizations working to develop, manufacture, promote, distribute, or maintain improved lighting products in developing countries.

(d) Monitoring; Reporting.

The administrator of the program established by subsection (a) shall--(1) monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the program; and

(2) report every 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act to the [appropriate developed country officials and entities] and the public on the effectiveness of the activities supported by and carried out under the program.

(e) Accounting.

The administrator of the program established by subsection (a) shall account for the funds it receives and distributes. The accounting shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and shall be made available to the [appropriate developed country officials and entities] and the public within 90 days of the end of each fiscal year. The program shall be audited by independent auditors, selected by the executive committee of the Agency, at the end of every other fiscal year.

[section] 6. Grant Program

(a) In General.

There is established within the [ministry or agency for applied energy research and design] to facilitate a Lighting Product Research, Development, and Demonstration in partnership with stakeholders in developing countries.

(b) Purpose.

The purpose of the grant program established by subsection (a), is to enable and facilitate the research, development, testing, and demonstration of:

(1) effective and efficient appropriate sustainable energy technologies that provide alternatives to the use of damaging fuel-based lighting;

(2) alternative lighting products and components thereof;

(3) accessible and user-friendly centralized charging mechanisms and stations;

(4) conduct and support research and monitoring on household, local, and global production of black carbon and other pollutants emitted by fuel-based lighting;

(5) conduct and support research and monitoring on the adverse human health and environmental effects associated with the black carbon and other pollutants emitted by fuel-based lighting;

(6) research and develop best practices and programs to reduce the adverse human health and environmental effects associated with black carbon and other pollutants through the use of fuel-based lighting; and

(7) inform governments...

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