FALL 2010 40
in place-based, grassroots efforts.30 One strategy that has shown
some success is siste r-city or country arrangements , such as
Malaysia and Denmark’s development of education programs,
staff and student exchange, and inter national certiﬁ cation for
Malaysian tree care professionals.31 This way, best practices and
relevant research are shared at lower costs to developing nations,
without giving up local control or relying on the sluggish move-
ment of international law.32
1 See Cecil C. Konijnendijk et al., Urban and Peri-Urban Forestry in a
Development Context—Strategy and Implementation, 30 J. oF arboriculture
269, 271 (2004) (emphasizing that “tree resources outside—but close to—urban
areas” contribute to urban societies).
2 See Cecil Konijnendijk & Michelle Gauthier, Urban Forestry for Multi-
functional Urban Land Use, in citieS Farming For the Future: agriculture
For green anD proDuctive citieS, 414-16 (René van Veenhuizen ed., 2006)
(discussing further urban green’s economic and livelihood values, environ-
mental and ecological values, and social and cultural values); E. Jane Carter,
The Potential of Urban Forestry in Developing Countries: A Concept Paper,
Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (1994), http://www.fao.org/
docrep/005/t1680e/T1680E04.htm#ch4 (last visited October 17, 2010).
3 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de
Janeiro, Braz., June 3-14, 1992, Rio Declaration on Environment and Devel-
opment, UN Doc. A/CONF.151/26/Rev. 1 (Vol. I), Annex I (Aug. 12, 1992)
[hereinafter Rio Declaration].
4 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de
Janeiro, Braz., June 3-14, 1992, Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement
of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and
Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.151/26
(Vol. III), Annex III (Aug. 14, 1992) [hereinafter Forest Principles], reprinted
in 31 I.L.M. 881.
5 CIA World Fact Book, ctr. intelligence agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/
publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html (last visited October 17, 2010)
(urbanization section). Indeed, some of the largest urban populations include cit-
ies in developing countries, such as New Delhi, Mumbai, and Kolkata in India,
Dhaka in Bangladesh; Karachi in Pakistan; São Paolo in Brazil; and Mexico City in
Mexico. See also U.N. Population Fund, State of World Population 2007: Unleash-
ing the Potential of Urban Growth, U.N. Doc. E/31,000/2007, U.N. Sales No. E.07.
III.H.1 (2007), http://www.unfpa.org/swp/2007/presskit/pdf/sowp2007_eng.pdf
(reporting that many of the people moving to cities will be poor and recommending
pre-emptive approaches to environmental problems in urban areas).
6 See george martine & gorDon mcgranahan, int’l inSt. For env’t &
Dev. & the un population FunD, braZil’S early urban tranSition: what
can it teach urbaniZing countrieS? (2010), http://www.iied.org/pubs/
pdfs/10585IIED.pdf (reporting how the rate of urban growth has outpaced land
use planning efforts and describing deforestation effects).
7 See id.; U.N. Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbaniza-
tion, Internal Migration and Development, Social and Environmental Aspects
of Peri-Urban Growth in Latin American Megacities, at 10, UN. Doc. UN/
POP/EGM-URB/2008/10 (Dec. 19, 2007) (by Haroldo da Gama Torres), http://
ing peri-urban expansion in Sao Paulo, Brazil to further deforestation).
8 Guida Kuchelmeister & Susan Braatz, Urban Forestry Revisited, 44
unaSylva 173, available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/u9300e/u9300e03.htm
(last visited October 17, 2010).
9 See generally David Satterthwaite, The Links between Poverty and the Envi-
ronment in Urban Areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America, 590 annalS oF the
am. acaD. oF pol. anD Soc. Sci. 73-92 (2003) (arguing that good governance in
implementing effective environmental policies can reduce poverty and increase
environmental health needs).
10 Susan L. Cutter, The Forgotten Casualties: Women, Children, and Environ-
mental Change, 5 global env’t change 181, 186-91 (1995).
11 Id. at 186-87, 189-93.
12 See Konijnendijk & Gauthier, supra note 2 (noting that urban forests reduce
polluted air, heat, water runoff, and impacts health); Carter, supra note 2
(discussing beneﬁts and arguing that environmental problems in urban areas
in developing countries are not trivia); see also Irus Braverman, “Everybody
Loves Trees”: Policing American Cities Through Street Trees, 19 DuKe envtl.
l. & pol’y F. 81, 84-87 (2008) (explaining environmental and social beneﬁts
and describing “tree projects” in North American cities).
Endnotes: Cultivating Urban Forests Policies in Developing Countries
13 Ulrika Åkerlund et al., Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, Urban
and Peri-urban Forestry and Greening in West and Central Asia, LSP Working
Paper 36, 7-8, 11-15 (2006), www.fao.org/es/esw/lsp/cd/img/docs/LSPWP36.pdf.
14 Lidija Knuth, Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, Legal and
Institutional Aspects of Urban and Peri-Urban Forestry and Greening 6-15
15 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro,
Braz., June 3-5, 1992, Convention on Biological Diversity, art. 1, 15(1), June 5, 1992,
1760 U.N.T.S. 79, available at http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml.
16 Konijnendijk et al., supra note 1, at 271-73 (relating how urban forestry
study started in the US in the 1970s); Konijnendijk, supra note 2, at 421, 423
(reporting that the U.S. Department of Agriculture (“USDA”) Forest Service
generates new research through special urban forestry research centers and
describing the institutionalization of urban forestry policies in the U.S. existing
and funded at federal, state, and local levels).
17 See Konijnendijk & Gauthier, supra note 2, at 420-22 & Gauthier (calling
for technology transfer and information sharing, education, and training, within
and between countries).
18 Konijnendijk et al., supra note 1, at 272 (differentiating priorities in the developing
world versus the “Western world,” where emphasis lies on green areas’ economic values).
19 See Åkerlund et al., supra note 13, at 14.
20 Rio Declaration, supra note 3, at princ. 10. (“Environmental issues are best
handled with participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level. At the
national level, each individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning
the environment that is held by public authorities, including information on hazardous
materials and activities in their communities, and the opportunity to participate in
decision-making processes. States shall facilitate and encourage public awareness and
participation by making information widely available. Effective access to judicial and
administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy, shall be provided.”)
21 See Forest Principles, supra note 4, at 2(c)-(d) (listing information sharing
and broad participation).
22 Rio Declaration, supra note 3.
23 Forest Principles, supra note 4, at 12 (c) (recognizing the importance of interna-
tional exchange of information, research and development of forest management,
including resources of education and training institutions and the private sector).
24 Rio Declaration, supra note 3, at princ. 2; Forest Principles, supra note 4, at 2(a).
25 John lemonS & DonalD a. brown, SuStainable Development: Science, ethicS,
anD public policy 3 (1995). The same concerns and lack of means for implementa-
tion reappear in the more recent Non-legally Binding Instrument on All Types of
Forests. U.N. Forum on Forests, Feb. 24, 2006, & Apr. 16-27, 2007, Report of the
Seventh Session, U.N. Doc E/CN.18/2007/8, E/2007/42, http://daccess-dds-ny.
26 See Konijnendijk et al., supra note 1, at 272, Table 1 (summarizing FAO’s
comprehensive mid-term plan for urban and peri-urban forestry program);
Åkerlund et al., supra note 13, at 5.
27 About CPF, collaborative p’Ship on ForeStS, http://www.fao.org/forestry/
cpf/44935/en/ (last visited Oct. 23, 2010).
28 About UNFF, Multi-Year Programme of Work 2007-2015, un Forum on
ForeStS, http://www.un.org/esa/forests/multi-year-work.html (last visited Oct.
23, 2010) (mentioning urban forestry only once for a plan in 2013).
29 See Claire R. Kelley, Institutional Alliances and Derivative Legitimacy, 29
mich. J. int’l l. 605, 631-33 (2008) (summarizing critiques on the ineffective-
ness of CPF and UNFF, including project delays, lack of transparency and real
dialogue, and insufﬁcient data).
30 Timothy Beatley & Richard Collins, Americanizing Sustainability: Place-
Based Approaches to the Global Challenge, 27 wm. & mary envtl. l. &
pol’y rev. 193, 194-96, 208-10 (2002) (criticizing the effectiveness of the Rio
de Janeiro conference but ﬁnding solutions in local strategies, although here,
the author discusses an American context).
31 See Konijnendijk & Gauthier, supra note 2, at 424.
32 Id. at 416.