Job satisfaction of employees plays a crucial role in determining the general productivity of workers in any organization. Job refers to occupational act that is carried out by an individual or group of individuals in return for a reward, while satisfaction refers to the way one feels about events, rewards, people, relation and amount of mental gladness on the job (Somvir & Kaushik, 2012).While job satisfaction can be defined as the rate at which "employees like or dislike their work and the extent to which their expectations concerning work have been fulfuled"(Gamlath & Kaluarachchi, 2014, p. 54). Job satisfaction is generally acknowledged as a necessary ingredient for personal fulfilment in carrying out one's duties.
In this study, job satisfaction is conceptualized to mean the level of positive attitude that a librarian displays when performing his/her duties in the university library and the rate at which his/her basic needs are met by the employers. It is interesting to note that if librarians are well catered for by the university authorities in the area of giving them due recognition for a job well done, put in place a good leadership style for the administration of the university library coupled with a career development opportunity for librarians to enhance development of their managerial skills, and conducive work environment as well as improved remunerations (good salaries and wages); their level of productivity will be greatly improved from what is presently existing in most Nigerian public universities.
Thus, job satisfaction enhances productivity of workers in any organization especially in the public university libraries as a satisfied worker is a happy and productive worker. Contrarily, a dissatisfied worker will either resign his or her appointment from the organization or constitute nuisance to the organization and this will encourage inefficiency and low productivity or commitment (Ademodi & Akintomide, 2015). It is therefore expedient for every "manager to take initiative in finding out those factors that improve job satisfaction of the subordinates" (Vijayabanu & Swaminathan, 2016, p. 1638) in order to boost productivity and enhances retention of the experienced workforce in the organization.
According to Parham (2014), productivity can be seen as a measure of the rate at which output of goods and services are produced per unit of input (labour, capital, raw materials, etc.). It is calculated as the ratio of the amount of outputs produced to some measure of the amount of inputs used. Unfortunately, it can be observed that productivity of workers in some organizations especially in the public university libraries is generally low. Some librarians in these libraries have issues ranging from perceived problems of inadequate attention to their basic needs by the organization to feelings of being marginalized and inadequate recognition by their employers, among others. In order to achieve the optimum productivity of librarians in the public university libraries, management should pay more attention to those factors that really motivate them.
Moreover, employee motivation is an essential factor in every organization especially the public university library. Motivation can be defined as "those factors that energize, direct, and sustain human behaviour towards a particular course of action. It indicates the intention of achieving a goal and leading to goal-directed behaviour" (Datta & Datta, 2013, p. 56) Motivation is simply regarded as those factors which drive people in putting real effort and energy into what they do. It enables workers to exert their real efforts in achieving the stated goals and objectives of the organization. Management should be concerned with how to motivate her workforce; this could be done by introducing some motivating factors that would encourage every librarian to be productive and gain a competitive edge over its competitors in the same industry. This belief is often reflected in the workers' emotions as they often agitate for more attention from the management to their plight. These workers' emotions have to be adequately managed in order to achieve the goals and objective of the organization.
Emotional intelligence is a psychological term that enables an individual to know and manage his or her feelings and emotions and use this information to guide his/her thinking and action while relating with other people in the organization and in the larger society. To this end, Masrek, Abdullah-Sani and Jamaludin (2012) affirmed that EI skills are essential in determining not only employee job commitment and job satisfaction, but also the level of employee productivity in the organization. It is a known fact that librarians on daily basis relate with different categories of library users that have diverse feelings and emotions. Thus, it is expected of every librarian to possess some measurements of emotional intelligence competencies (EICs) that would enable him or her to adequately meet the information needs of library users. These EICs could be acquired through constant training and continuous career development on the part of librarians in order to make their services more relevant in this information age.
Human capital development (HCD) according to (Akintayo, 2011) is a key element in improving a firm's assets and employees in order to increase productivity as well as sustain competitive advantage. HCD promotes the efficiency and effectiveness of employees in any organization especially in the university library. Therefore, to sustain competitiveness in the library, human capital becomes an instrument used to increase productivity and enhanced job satisfaction of the workforce. Hence, it is expected of every librarian to avail himself or herself with different relevant training and career development programmes available within and outside the organization in order to be more effective in meeting the information needs of library clienteles.
In Nigeria, there are eighty one (81) functional public universities (National University Commission, 2015). The list comprises of forty one (41) Federal universities and forty (40) State owned universities, while some are yet to start operations despite of their operational approval. Each of these public universities have a library manned by a University Librarian working together with other professional librarians to provide relevant educational resources to support the curricula of the university programmes.
Statement of the Problem
Research has shown that the level of job satisfaction and productivity of library personnel is low (Babalola & Nwalo, 2013) although their research productivity is relatively high (Okonedo, Popoola, Emmanuel & Bamigboye, 2015). While many of these studies have been directed towards library use, library collections and library services, few if any have been carried out from the perspective of personal welfare of employees. In other words, studies have not been directed at investigating the relationships between welfare and personal issues such as employee motivation, emotional intelligence and human capital development on one side and job satisfaction and productivity on the other side. The aim of this research is to find out the relationships among these variables; specifically, the extent to which motivation, emotional intelligence and human capital development influence the job satisfaction and productivity of librarians in university libraries in Nigeria.
Objective of the Study
These are to:
find out the level of job satisfaction of librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria;
ascertain the level of motivation of librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria;
assess the level of emotional intelligence of librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria;
examine the level of human capital development of librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria;
investigate the combined effects of motivation, emotional intelligence and human capital development on job satisfaction and productivity of librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria; and
find out the challenging issues in job satisfaction and productivity of librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria.
What is the level of job satisfaction of librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria?
What is the level of motivation of librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria?
What is the level of emotional intelligence of librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria?
What is the level of human capital development of librarians in public University libraries in Nigeria?
What challenges face librarians' job satisfaction and productivity in public university libraries in Nigeria?
The null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance:
[H.sub.o]: There are no combined effects of employee motivation, emotional intelligence and human capital development on job satisfaction and productivity of librarians in public university libraries in Nigeria.
Scope of the Study
The study is limited to librarians in the public (that is, federal and state) universities in Nigeria, while private universities and other third level institutions were excluded. Respondents were librarians in the federal and state universities that are spread across the six geo-political regions in Nigeria. Para-professional staff as well as other personnel in the libraries were thus excluded.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The empirical review is done under which contribution that each of the variables has on the job satisfaction of librarians in the public university libraries are discussed under the following sub-headings:
Effect of Motivation on Job Satisfaction and Productivity of Librarians
The relationship between motivation and job satisfaction on one hand, and between motivation and productivity of employees at work on the other hand has been one of...