A conservative Texas Democrat and internationalist, Tom Connally, as he officially called himself, served twelve years in the HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES and twenty-four in the SENATE. When he retired from politics in 1953, he said he was most proud of his leadership against FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT'S COURT-PACKING plan of 1937 and in favor of the creation of the United Nations. Connally's main achievements were in the field of FOREIGN AFFAIRS, from managing the Lend Lease Act to confirmation of the NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY. He was cool toward much of the NEW DEAL, except when it benefited Texas cattle, oil, and cotton interests. The Supreme Court struck down the Connally "Hot Oil" Act in PANAMA REFINING CO. V. RYAN (1935), but he secured a revised measure that constitutionally prohibited the shipment in INTERSTATE COMMERCE of oil produced in excess of government quotas. He opposed every CIVIL RIGHTS measure that came before the SENATE and joined every southern FILIBUSTER, preventing the enactment of antilynching and anti-POLL TAX bills. Connally was one of the last of colorful, powerful, demagogic, and grandiloquent southern politicians who affected a drawl, string-tie, frock coat, and flowing hair.
LEONARD W. LEVY
CONNALLY, TOM and STEINBERG, ALFRED 1954 My Name Is Tom Connally. New York: Crowell.