Hearing impairment is a condition that imposes limitations in hearing on the individual. Persons with hearing impairment suffer from hearing loss and are therefore precluded from adequate hearing. Hearing loss affects how well an individual is able to hear spoken language and respond to other stimuli in the environment, since it brings about limits in sensitivity to sound. According to Onwuchekwa (1987) and Heward (2000) hearing impairment limits an individual from the acquisition of information or knowledge through the auditory channel. This means that they have problems with communication due to their hearing loss. As noted by Waite and Melling (2007) hearing plays a fundamental role in communication and when someone has difficulties hearing, he is likely to experience difficulties with communication. Considering the fact that language remains the main vehicle of communication, persons with hearing impairment are therefore put at a disadvantage in a hearing community and most especially in an integrated school environment where appropriate provisions are not made to take care of the special needs of this population. Regardless of their disabilities, persons with hearing impairment have the same right to education as non-disabled persons and they require active intervention and specialized services. Educational placements for persons with hearing impairment range from integration to segregation and recently, inclusion. Since libraries suppose to be part of educational provision in the schools, it is pertinent that appropriate skills are imparted to the students.
The library is an important aspect of the school system and the school library can stimulate learning and motivate pupils by providing the means to freely pursue subjects which engage them. Library use instruction is a form of education for library users. It is meant to help users take maximum advantage of library resources to meet their information needs. Library use instruction is based upon the belief that information seeking is an essential skill for life-long learning which can be learned and improved throughout a person's educational and professional career (University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2008). As observed by Murray (2002), teaching people with hearing impairment skills to access information will make an important contribution to their education. And to make their instruction in the use of library resources effective, it is necessary to use adapted aids and strategies, because they have problems in understanding spoken language.
Various strategies useful with hearing persons could be adapted to teach persons with hearing impairment. However, in adopting instructional strategies for learners with hearing impairment, it is necessary to consider the fact noted by Eniolorunda (1998) and Heward (2000) that the learning process of persons with impairment is inferior to that of hearing children. Both direct instruction and captioned video instruction have been identified as useful strategies for learners with hearing impairment (Keller, 2005).
Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study were to investigate and compare the effects of captioned video and face-to-face instructional strategies on the learning outcomes in library use instruction of secondary school students with hearing impairment.
The following null hypotheses were tested in this study at 0.05 level of probability:
There is no significant difference in the learning outcomes of students exposed to face-to-face instruction and the control group.
There is no significant difference in the learning outcomes of students exposed to captioned video instruction and the control group
There is no significant difference in the performance of students exposed to face-to-face instruction and captioned video instruction.
Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is limited to captioned video and face-to-face instructional strategies in library use instruction and the examination of their effects on the performance of secondary school students with hearing impairment. The study focused mainly on public secondary schools that offer integration to persons with hearing impairment in Oyo State. Oyo state is considered suitable for this study, as it has been found to have the highest concentration of schools for the hearing impaired.
Review of Relevant Literature
Research evidences suggested instructional strategies that could be employed for people with hearing impairment to include face-to-face instruction approach (other wise known as direct instruction), child initiated activities and eclectic approach (Olson and Platt, 1992, Keller, 2005). Others are interactive instruction and peer mediated instruction as well as modeling (Wolery, 1992; Drecktrah and Chiang, 1997; Jones, 1997; Jitendra and Torgerson-Tubiello, 1997). However, Keller (2005) asserted that all of these strategies will work on some of the students while some strategies will not. The degree of impairment and the background training of the student will affect the usefulness of the various strategies.
Studies have also established the usefulness of captioned media in the instruction of both young and adult persons with hearing impairment. Koskinen (1988) in two studies employed captioned television in reading instruction for elementary school deaf students. Withrow (1994) reported on projects implementing captioned media resources in mainstream classrooms for persons with hearing impairment. He reported that the students were comfortable, stayed on task and responded accurately to lessons. Evmenova (2008) investigated the effectiveness of alternative narration, various adapted captioning (highlighted text and picture/word-based), and interactive searching the video for answers on content comprehension of non-fiction general education videos by students with intellectual disabilities. The study showed that students enjoyed learning with adapted video clips. It was further concluded that adapted videos offer effective adapted curriculum materials and interventions supporting inclusion of students with disabilities into content based education.
Various studies have also employed face-to-face instructional strategy with various degrees of success. Aarnoutse (1997) investigated the...