Colorado

Pages378-426
Chapter 7
for the
STATE OF COLORADO
Updated and Revised by
M. Antonio Gallegos, Esq.
James E. Hartley, Esq.
Holland & Hart LLP
Denver, Colorado
The Section of Antitrust Law thanks Jan Michael Zavislan, Deputy Attorney
General, and Maria Berkenkotter, First Assistant Attorney General, Colorado
Attorney General’s Office, for their review of this chapter.
The Section gratefully acknowledges Barry E. Cohen, Esq., Dawnee Giammittorio,
Esq., Thorvald A. Nelson, Esq., B. Lawrence Theis, Esq., and Nancy A. Trethewey,
Esq. for their work on this chapter in prior editions.
Colorado 7-iii
CONTENTS
1. Introduction ................................................................................................... 1
1.a. Overview.......................................................................................... 1
1.d. Relation to Federal Law................................................................... 1
1.e. Remedies.......................................................................................... 2
1.f. Enforcement ..................................................................................... 2
2. The Per Se Rule and the Rule of Reason ....................................................... 3
3. Horizontal Agreements Other Than Group Boycotts .................................... 4
3.a. Price Fixing...................................................................................... 4
3.c. Market Allocation ............................................................................ 5
3.d. Bid Rigging...................................................................................... 5
3.e. Covenants Not to Compete .............................................................. 5
4. Group Boycotts.............................................................................................. 7
4.a. Concerted Refusals to Deal.............................................................. 7
4.b. Expulsion or Exclusion from Membership in Trade
Associations or Other Groups .......................................................... 7
5. Resale Price Maintenance.............................................................................. 8
5.a. Generally.......................................................................................... 8
5.b. Monsanto Rule ................................................................................. 9
5.c. Impact of Leegin .............................................................................. 9
6. Nonprice Vertical Restraints–Intrabrand....................................................... 9
7. Nonprice Vertical Restraints–Interbrand..................................................... 10
8. Tying Arrangements .................................................................................... 10
9. Dual Distribution ......................................................................................... 11
10. Intracorporate Conspiracy............................................................................ 11
11. Monopolization............................................................................................ 11
11.a. Monopolization.............................................................................. 11
11.c. Monopoly Leveraging.................................................................... 12
12. Mergers........................................................................................................ 12
13. Discrimination & Other Forms of Single FirmPricing Regulation............. 13
13.a. Price Discrimination ...................................................................... 13
13.a.1. Territorial or Locality Discrimination......................... 13
13.a.2. Buyer Liability ............................................................ 14
13.a.3. Meeting Competition Defense .................................... 14
13.a.6. O ther Defenses and Exemptions................................. 15
13.a.8. Secret P ayments or Allowances.................................. 15
13.a.9. P romotional Allowances and Services........................ 15
13.a.10. Sales Below Cost and Loss Leaders............................ 15
13.c. Specific Industry Rules .................................................................. 19
13.c.2. Cigarettes .................................................................... 19
13.c.4. Fuel and Petroleum ..................................................... 19
14. Exemptions and Defenses to Antitrust Liability.......................................... 19
14.a. Statutory Exemptions and Defenses............................................... 19
14.a.1. State Action................................................................. 19
14.a.4. Statute of Limitations.................................................. 19
14.a.6. Labor ........................................................................... 20

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