Chapter III. General review of the legal activities of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations

  1. general review of the legal activities of the United Nations

    1. membership of the United Nations

      As .at .31 .December .2005, .the .number .of .Member .States .remained .at .191

    2. The World summit

      From .14 .to .16 .September .2005, .the .High-level .plenary .meeting .of .the .sixtieth .session . of .the .General .Assembly, .the .World .Summit, .was .held .in .New .York .and .brought .together . more .than .170 .Heads .of .States .and .Governments .This .event .constituted .the .largest .gathering .of .world .leaders .in .history, .and .as .such, .it .represented .an .opportunity .to .take .landmark . decisions .in .the .areas .of .development, .security, .human .rights .and .the .reform .of .the .United . Nations .The .selection .of .items .to .be .discussed .during .the .Summit .was .based .on .a .set . of .proposals .outlined .by .the .Secretary-General .in .his .report .entitled .“In .larger .freedom: . towards .development, .security .and .human .rights .for .all”,1 .which .was .a .follow-up .to .the . outcome .of .the .Millennium .Summit

      The .report .of .the .Secretary-General .and .the .set .of .proposals .it .contained .were .based . on .the .report .of .the .High-level .Panel .on .Threats, .Challenges .and .Change .entitled .“A .more . secure .world: .our .shared .responsibility”,2 .which .detailed .101 .recommendations .made .by .the . Panel .on .changes .that .could .enhance .the .capacity .and .the .efficiency .of .the .United .Nations . to .deal .with .new .and .future .threats .The .threats .identified .by .the .Panel .were .numerous, . including .economic .and .social, .inter-State .conflicts, .internal .conflicts, .including .civil .war, . genocide .and .large-scale .atrocities, .nuclear, .radiological, .chemical .and .biological .weapons, . terrorism, .and .organized .crime .The .Panel .also .made .proposals .for .reforming .the .internal . structure .and .the .principal .organs .of .the .United .Nations

      The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .who .gathered .at .the .2005 .World .Summit .adopted . an .outcome .document .that .included .a .significant .number .of .the .High-level .Panel .recommendations, .which .had .also .been .endorsed .by .the .Secretary-General .in .his .report .The . recommendations .and .decisions .contained .in .this .2005 .World .Summit .Outcome .were .

      1 . A/59/2005 .and .Adds 1–3

      2 . A/59/565 .and .Corr 1



      adopted .by .General .Assembly .resolution .60/1 .of .16 .September .2005 .Some .of .the .recommendations .and .decisions .are .highlighted .below

      (a) Values and principles

      The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .reaffirmed .that .their .common .values .and .principles, .including .freedom, .equality, .solidarity, .tolerance, .respect .for .all .human .rights, .respect . for .nature .and .shared .responsibility, .were .essential .to .international .relations .They .also . acknowledged .that .good .governance .and .the .rule .of .law .at .the .national .and .international . levels .were .essential .for .sustained .economic .growth, .sustainable .development .and .the . eradication .of .poverty .and .hunger .Furthermore, .they .pledged .to .enhance .the .efficiency, .accountability .and .credibility .of .the .United .Nations .system .and, .in .this .regard, .they . affirmed .their .resolve .to .create .a .more .peaceful, .prosperous .and .democratic .world .They . also .decided .to .undertake .concrete .measures .to .continue .finding .ways .to .implement .the . outcome .of .the .Millennium .Summit, .so .as .to .provide .multilateral .solutions .to .problems .of . development, .peace .and .collective .security, .human .rights .and .the .rule .of .law, .as .well .as .to . strengthen .the .United .Nations

      (b) Development

      It .was .reaffirmed .in .the .World .Summit .Outcome .that .good .governance .was .essential . for .sustainable .development .and .that .sound .economic .policies, .solid .democratic .institutions .responsive .to .the .needs .of .the .people, .and .improved .infrastructures .were .the .basis .for . sustained .economic .growth, .poverty .eradication .and .employment .creation .It .was .further . reaffirmed .that .freedom, .peace .and .security, .domestic .stability, .respect .for .human .rights, . including .the .right .to .development, .the .rule .of .law, .gender .equality .and .market-oriented .policies, .as .well .as .an .overall .commitment .to .just .and .democratic .societies, .were .also . essential .and .mutually .reinforcing

      (c) Peace and collective security

      (i) Establishment of a counter-terrorism strategy

      The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .welcomed .the .Secretary-General’s .identification . of .elements .of .a .counter-terrorism .strategy3 .and .stated .that .the .General .Assembly .should . further .develop .the .elements .with .a .view .to .adopting .and .implementing .a .strategy .to .promote .comprehensive, .coordinated .and .consistent .responses .to .counter .terrorism, .which . would .take .into .account .the .conditions .conducive .to .the .spread .of .terrorism .They .also . stressed .the .need .to .make .every .effort .to .reach .an .agreement .on .and .conclude .a .comprehensive .convention .on .international .terrorism .during .the .sixtieth .session .of .the .General . Assembly .and .acknowledged .that .the .question .of .convening .a .high-level .conference .under . the .auspices .of .the .United .Nations .to .formulate .an .international .response .to .terrorism .in . all .its .forms .and .manifestations .could .be .considered .The .Heads .of .State .and .Government . further .recognized that international cooperation to fight terrorism must be conducted in recognized .that .international .cooperation .to .fight .terrorism .must .be .conducted .in .

      3 . A/59/2005, .paras .87–96 .and .annex .I, .chapter .II .

      . chapter .III . 1 5

      conformity .with .international .law .and .that .States .must .ensure .that .any .measures .taken . to .combat .terrorism .comply .with .their .obligations .under .international .law, .in .particular . human .rights .law, .refugee .law .and .international .humanitarian .law

      In .its .report, .the .High-level .Panel .had, .inter alia, .recommended .that .the .General . Assembly .adopt .a .definition .of .terrorism .and .proposed .certain .elements .to .be .included . therein 4 .The .Secretary-General .fully .endorsed .this .recommendation .in .his .report .and . stated .that .it .would .make .“clear .that, .in .addition .to .actions .already .proscribed .by .existing . conventions, .any .action .constitutes .terrorism .if .it .is .intended .to .cause .death .or .serious . bodily .harm .to .civilians .or .non-combatants .with .the .purpose .of .intimidating .a .population . or .compelling .a .Government .or .an .international .organization .to .do .or .abstain .from .doing . any .act”5 .He .strongly .urged .world .leaders .to .unite .behind .the .proposal .by .the .Panel .The . question .of .a .definition .of .terrorism .was .not .addressed .in .the .World .Summit .Outcome

      (ii) Establishment of a Peacebuilding Commission6

      The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .emphasized .the .need .for .a .coordinated, .coherent .and .integrated .approach .to .post-conflict .peacebuilding .and .reconciliation .with .a .view . to .achieving .sustainable .peace .In .this .regard, .they .recognized .the .need .for .a .dedicated . institutional .mechanism .to .address .the .special .needs .of .countries .emerging .from .conflict . towards .recovery, .reintegration .and .reconstruction, .and .to .assist .them .in .laying .the .foundation .for .sustainable .development .Therefore, .they .decided .to .establish .a .Peacebuilding . Commission .as .an .intergovernmental .advisory .body, .which .would .have .the .objective .of . bringing .together .all .relevant .actors .to .marshal .resources, .to .advise .on, .and .to .propose . integrated .strategies .for .post-conflict .peacebuilding .and .recovery .The .Commission .would . focus .attention .on .the .reconstruction .and .institution-building .efforts .necessary .for .recovery .from .conflict .and .support .the .development .of .integrated .strategies .in .order .to .lay . the .foundation .for .sustainable .development .Furthermore, .the .Peacebuilding .Commission .would .provide .recommendations .and .information .to .improve .the .coordination .of .all . relevant .actors .within .and .outside .the .United .Nations, .develop .best .practices, .help .ensure . predictable .financing .for .early .recovery .activities .and .extend .the .period .of .attention .by .the . international .community .to .post-conflict .recovery .In .doing .so, .the .Commission .would .act . in .all .matters .on .the .basis .of .consensus .of .its .members

      Moreover, .the .Commission .would .meet .in .various .configurations, .depending .on .the . country .under .consideration .The .following .representatives .would .be .included: .the .country .concerned, .the .other .countries .from .the .region .that .are .engaged .in .the .post-conflict . process, .the .countries .involved .in .relief .efforts, .the .relevant .regional .organizations, .the . major .financial, .troop .and .civilian .police .contributors, .the .senior .United .Nations .representatives .in .the .field, .and .the .relevant .regional .and .international .institutions

      4 . A/59/565 .and .Corr .1, .paras .163–164

      5 . A/59/2005, .para .91

      6 . See .also .section .3 .(c) .of .the .present .chapter, .dealing .with .“Other .peacekeeping .matters”


      (iii) Sanctions

      . The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .stated .in .the .World .Summit .Outcome .that .sanctions .should .be .implemented .and .monitored .effectively .with .clear .benchmarks, .be .periodically .reviewed .and .remain .for .as .limited .a .period .as .necessary .to .achieve .their .objectives . They .should .be .terminated .once .the .said .objectives .have .been...

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