Chapter III. General review of the legal activities of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations


A. General review of the legal activities of the United Nations 1. Membership of the United Nations 143 2. The World Summit 143 (a) Values and principles (b) Development (c) Other peacekeeping matters (d) Human rights and the rule of law (e) Strengthening the United Nations 3. Peace and security (a) Peacekeeping missions and operations (b) Political and peacebuilding missions (c) Other peacekeeping matters (d) Action of Member States authorized by the Security Council (e) Sanctions imposed under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations (f) Terrorism 4. Disarmament and related matters (a) Nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation issues (b) Biological and chemical weapons issues (c) Conventional weapons issues (d) Regional disarmament activities of the United Nations (e) Other issues 5. Legal aspects of peaceful uses of outer space 185 6. Human Rights (a) Sessions of the United Nations human rights bodies and treaty bodies (b) Racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance (c) Right to development (d) Economic, social and cultural rights (e) Civil and... (see full summary)

  1. general review of the legal activities of the United Nations

    1. membership of the United Nations

      As .at .31 .December .2005, .the .number .of .Member .States .remained .at .191

    2. The World summit

      From .14 .to .16 .September .2005, .the .High-level .plenary .meeting .of .the .sixtieth .session . of .the .General .Assembly, .the .World .Summit, .was .held .in .New .York .and .brought .together . more .than .170 .Heads .of .States .and .Governments .This .event .constituted .the .largest .gathering .of .world .leaders .in .history, .and .as .such, .it .represented .an .opportunity .to .take .landmark . decisions .in .the .areas .of .development, .security, .human .rights .and .the .reform .of .the .United . Nations .The .selection .of .items .to .be .discussed .during .the .Summit .was .based .on .a .set . of .proposals .outlined .by .the .Secretary-General .in .his .report .entitled .“In .larger .freedom: . towards .development, .security .and .human .rights .for .all”,1 .which .was .a .follow-up .to .the . outcome .of .the .Millennium .Summit

      The .report .of .the .Secretary-General .and .the .set .of .proposals .it .contained .were .based . on .the .report .of .the .High-level .Panel .on .Threats, .Challenges .and .Change .entitled .“A .more . secure .world: .our .shared .responsibility”,2 .which .detailed .101 .recommendations .made .by .the . Panel .on .changes .that .could .enhance .the .capacity .and .the .efficiency .of .the .United .Nations . to .deal .with .new .and .future .threats .The .threats .identified .by .the .Panel .were .numerous, . including .economic .and .social, .inter-State .conflicts, .internal .conflicts, .including .civil .war, . genocide .and .large-scale .atrocities, .nuclear, .radiological, .chemical .and .biological .weapons, . terrorism, .and .organized .crime .The .Panel .also .made .proposals .for .reforming .the .internal . structure .and .the .principal .organs .of .the .United .Nations

      The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .who .gathered .at .the .2005 .World .Summit .adopted . an .outcome .document .that .included .a .significant .number .of .the .High-level .Panel .recommendations, .which .had .also .been .endorsed .by .the .Secretary-General .in .his .report .The . recommendations .and .decisions .contained .in .this .2005 .World .Summit .Outcome .were .

      1 . A/59/2005 .and .Adds 1–3

      2 . A/59/565 .and .Corr 1



      adopted .by .General .Assembly .resolution .60/1 .of .16 .September .2005 .Some .of .the .recommendations .and .decisions .are .highlighted .below

      (a) Values and principles

      The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .reaffirmed .that .their .common .values .and .principles, .including .freedom, .equality, .solidarity, .tolerance, .respect .for .all .human .rights, .respect . for .nature .and .shared .responsibility, .were .essential .to .international .relations .They .also . acknowledged .that .good .governance .and .the .rule .of .law .at .the .national .and .international . levels .were .essential .for .sustained .economic .growth, .sustainable .development .and .the . eradication .of .poverty .and .hunger .Furthermore, .they .pledged .to .enhance .the .efficiency, .accountability .and .credibility .of .the .United .Nations .system .and, .in .this .regard, .they . affirmed .their .resolve .to .create .a .more .peaceful, .prosperous .and .democratic .world .They . also .decided .to .undertake .concrete .measures .to .continue .finding .ways .to .implement .the . outcome .of .the .Millennium .Summit, .so .as .to .provide .multilateral .solutions .to .problems .of . development, .peace .and .collective .security, .human .rights .and .the .rule .of .law, .as .well .as .to . strengthen .the .United .Nations

      (b) Development

      It .was .reaffirmed .in .the .World .Summit .Outcome .that .good .governance .was .essential . for .sustainable .development .and .that .sound .economic .policies, .solid .democratic .institutions .responsive .to .the .needs .of .the .people, .and .improved .infrastructures .were .the .basis .for . sustained .economic .growth, .poverty .eradication .and .employment .creation .It .was .further . reaffirmed .that .freedom, .peace .and .security, .domestic .stability, .respect .for .human .rights, . including .the .right .to .development, .the .rule .of .law, .gender .equality .and .market-oriented .policies, .as .well .as .an .overall .commitment .to .just .and .democratic .societies, .were .also . essential .and .mutually .reinforcing

      (c) Peace and collective security

      (i) Establishment of a counter-terrorism strategy

      The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .welcomed .the .Secretary-General’s .identification . of .elements .of .a .counter-terrorism .strategy3 .and .stated .that .the .General .Assembly .should . further .develop .the .elements .with .a .view .to .adopting .and .implementing .a .strategy .to .promote .comprehensive, .coordinated .and .consistent .responses .to .counter .terrorism, .which . would .take .into .account .the .conditions .conducive .to .the .spread .of .terrorism .They .also . stressed .the .need .to .make .every .effort .to .reach .an .agreement .on .and .conclude .a .comprehensive .convention .on .international .terrorism .during .the .sixtieth .session .of .the .General . Assembly .and .acknowledged .that .the .question .of .convening .a .high-level .conference .under . the .auspices .of .the .United .Nations .to .formulate .an .international .response .to .terrorism .in . all .its .forms .and .manifestations .could .be .considered .The .Heads .of .State .and .Government . further .recognized that international cooperation to fight terrorism must be conducted in recognized .that .international .cooperation .to .fight .terrorism .must .be .conducted .in .

      3 . A/59/2005, .paras .87–96 .and .annex .I, .chapter .II .

      . chapter .III . 1 5

      conformity .with .international .law .and .that .States .must .ensure .that .any .measures .taken . to .combat .terrorism .comply .with .their .obligations .under .international .law, .in .particular . human .rights .law, .refugee .law .and .international .humanitarian .law

      In .its .report, .the .High-level .Panel .had, .inter alia, .recommended .that .the .General . Assembly .adopt .a .definition .of .terrorism .and .proposed .certain .elements .to .be .included . therein 4 .The .Secretary-General .fully .endorsed .this .recommendation .in .his .report .and . stated .that .it .would .make .“clear .that, .in .addition .to .actions .already .proscribed .by .existing . conventions, .any .action .constitutes .terrorism .if .it .is .intended .to .cause .death .or .serious . bodily .harm .to .civilians .or .non-combatants .with .the .purpose .of .intimidating .a .population . or .compelling .a .Government .or .an .international .organization .to .do .or .abstain .from .doing . any .act”5 .He .strongly .urged .world .leaders .to .unite .behind .the .proposal .by .the .Panel .The . question .of .a .definition .of .terrorism .was .not .addressed .in .the .World .Summit .Outcome

      (ii) Establishment of a Peacebuilding Commission6

      The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .emphasized .the .need .for .a .coordinated, .coherent .and .integrated .approach .to .post-conflict .peacebuilding .and .reconciliation .with .a .view . to .achieving .sustainable .peace .In .this .regard, .they .recognized .the .need .for .a .dedicated . institutional .mechanism .to .address .the .special .needs .of .countries .emerging .from .conflict . towards .recovery, .reintegration .and .reconstruction, .and .to .assist .them .in .laying .the .foundation .for .sustainable .development .Therefore, .they .decided .to .establish .a .Peacebuilding . Commission .as .an .intergovernmental .advisory .body, .which .would .have .the .objective .of . bringing .together .all .relevant .actors .to .marshal .resources, .to .advise .on, .and .to .propose . integrated .strategies .for .post-conflict .peacebuilding .and .recovery .The .Commission .would . focus .attention .on .the .reconstruction .and .institution-building .efforts .necessary .for .recovery .from .conflict .and .support .the .development .of .integrated .strategies .in .order .to .lay . the .foundation .for .sustainable .development .Furthermore, .the .Peacebuilding .Commission .would .provide .recommendations .and .information .to .improve .the .coordination .of .all . relevant .actors .within .and .outside .the .United .Nations, .develop .best .practices, .help .ensure . predictable .financing .for .early .recovery .activities .and .extend .the .period .of .attention .by .the . international .community .to .post-conflict .recovery .In .doing .so, .the .Commission .would .act . in .all .matters .on .the .basis .of .consensus .of .its .members

      Moreover, .the .Commission .would .meet .in .various .configurations, .depending .on .the . country .under .consideration .The .following .representatives .would .be .included: .the .country .concerned, .the .other .countries .from .the .region .that .are .engaged .in .the .post-conflict . process, .the .countries .involved .in .relief .efforts, .the .relevant .regional .organizations, .the . major .financial, .troop .and .civilian .police .contributors, .the .senior .United .Nations .representatives .in .the .field, .and .the .relevant .regional .and .international .institutions

      4 . A/59/565 .and .Corr .1, .paras .163–164

      5 . A/59/2005, .para .91

      6 . See .also .section .3 .(c) .of .the .present .chapter, .dealing .with .“Other .peacekeeping .matters”


      (iii) Sanctions

      . The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .stated .in .the .World .Summit .Outcome .that .sanctions .should .be .implemented .and .monitored .effectively .with .clear .benchmarks, .be .periodically .reviewed .and .remain .for .as .limited .a .period .as .necessary .to .achieve .their .objectives . They .should .be .terminated .once .the .said...

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