Chapter III. General review of the legal activities of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations

SUMMARY

A. General review of the legal activities of the United Nations 1. Membership of the United Nations (a) Membership (b) Appointments 2. Peace and security (a) Peacekeeping missions and operations (b) Political and peacebuilding missions (c) Other peacekeeping matters (d) Action of Member States authorized by the Council (e) Sanctions imposed under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations (f) Terrorism (g) Human rights and humanitarian law in the context of peace and security 3. Disarmament and related matters (a) Disarmament machinery (b) Nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation issues (c) Biological and chemical weapons issues (d) Conventional weapons issues (e) Regional disarmament activities of the United Nations (f) Other issues 4. Legal aspects of peaceful uses of outer space (a) The Legal Subcommittee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (b) General Assembly 5. Human Rights (a) Sessions of the United Nations human rights bodies and treaty bodies (b) Racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance (c) Right to development (d) Right to self-determination (e) Economic, social and cultural rights (f) Civil and political rights (g) Integration of human rights of women and the gender perspective (h) Rights of the child (i)... (see full summary)

 
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gENERAL REviEW OF ThE LEgAL ACTiviTiEs OF ThE UNiTED NATiONs AND RELATED iNTERgOvERNmENTAL ORgANizATiONs

  1. general review of the legal activities of the United Nations

    1. membership of the United Nations

      As .at .31 .December .2005, .the .number .of .Member .States .remained .at .191

    2. The World summit

      From .14 .to .16 .September .2005, .the .High-level .plenary .meeting .of .the .sixtieth .session . of .the .General .Assembly, .the .World .Summit, .was .held .in .New .York .and .brought .together . more .than .170 .Heads .of .States .and .Governments .This .event .constituted .the .largest .gathering .of .world .leaders .in .history, .and .as .such, .it .represented .an .opportunity .to .take .landmark . decisions .in .the .areas .of .development, .security, .human .rights .and .the .reform .of .the .United . Nations .The .selection .of .items .to .be .discussed .during .the .Summit .was .based .on .a .set . of .proposals .outlined .by .the .Secretary-General .in .his .report .entitled .“In .larger .freedom: . towards .development, .security .and .human .rights .for .all”,1 .which .was .a .follow-up .to .the . outcome .of .the .Millennium .Summit

      The .report .of .the .Secretary-General .and .the .set .of .proposals .it .contained .were .based . on .the .report .of .the .High-level .Panel .on .Threats, .Challenges .and .Change .entitled .“A .more . secure .world: .our .shared .responsibility”,2 .which .detailed .101 .recommendations .made .by .the . Panel .on .changes .that .could .enhance .the .capacity .and .the .efficiency .of .the .United .Nations . to .deal .with .new .and .future .threats .The .threats .identified .by .the .Panel .were .numerous, . including .economic .and .social, .inter-State .conflicts, .internal .conflicts, .including .civil .war, . genocide .and .large-scale .atrocities, .nuclear, .radiological, .chemical .and .biological .weapons, . terrorism, .and .organized .crime .The .Panel .also .made .proposals .for .reforming .the .internal . structure .and .the .principal .organs .of .the .United .Nations

      The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .who .gathered .at .the .2005 .World .Summit .adopted . an .outcome .document .that .included .a .significant .number .of .the .High-level .Panel .recommendations, .which .had .also .been .endorsed .by .the .Secretary-General .in .his .report .The . recommendations .and .decisions .contained .in .this .2005 .World .Summit .Outcome .were .

      1 . A/59/2005 .and .Adds 1–3

      2 . A/59/565 .and .Corr 1

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      1 . UNITED .NATIONS .JURIDICAL .YEARBOOK .2005

      adopted .by .General .Assembly .resolution .60/1 .of .16 .September .2005 .Some .of .the .recommendations .and .decisions .are .highlighted .below

      (a) Values and principles

      The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .reaffirmed .that .their .common .values .and .principles, .including .freedom, .equality, .solidarity, .tolerance, .respect .for .all .human .rights, .respect . for .nature .and .shared .responsibility, .were .essential .to .international .relations .They .also . acknowledged .that .good .governance .and .the .rule .of .law .at .the .national .and .international . levels .were .essential .for .sustained .economic .growth, .sustainable .development .and .the . eradication .of .poverty .and .hunger .Furthermore, .they .pledged .to .enhance .the .efficiency, .accountability .and .credibility .of .the .United .Nations .system .and, .in .this .regard, .they . affirmed .their .resolve .to .create .a .more .peaceful, .prosperous .and .democratic .world .They . also .decided .to .undertake .concrete .measures .to .continue .finding .ways .to .implement .the . outcome .of .the .Millennium .Summit, .so .as .to .provide .multilateral .solutions .to .problems .of . development, .peace .and .collective .security, .human .rights .and .the .rule .of .law, .as .well .as .to . strengthen .the .United .Nations

      (b) Development

      It .was .reaffirmed .in .the .World .Summit .Outcome .that .good .governance .was .essential . for .sustainable .development .and .that .sound .economic .policies, .solid .democratic .institutions .responsive .to .the .needs .of .the .people, .and .improved .infrastructures .were .the .basis .for . sustained .economic .growth, .poverty .eradication .and .employment .creation .It .was .further . reaffirmed .that .freedom, .peace .and .security, .domestic .stability, .respect .for .human .rights, . including .the .right .to .development, .the .rule .of .law, .gender .equality .and .market-oriented .policies, .as .well .as .an .overall .commitment .to .just .and .democratic .societies, .were .also . essential .and .mutually .reinforcing

      (c) Peace and collective security

      (i) Establishment of a counter-terrorism strategy

      The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .welcomed .the .Secretary-General’s .identification . of .elements .of .a .counter-terrorism .strategy3 .and .stated .that .the .General .Assembly .should . further .develop .the .elements .with .a .view .to .adopting .and .implementing .a .strategy .to .promote .comprehensive, .coordinated .and .consistent .responses .to .counter .terrorism, .which . would .take .into .account .the .conditions .conducive .to .the .spread .of .terrorism .They .also . stressed .the .need .to .make .every .effort .to .reach .an .agreement .on .and .conclude .a .comprehensive .convention .on .international .terrorism .during .the .sixtieth .session .of .the .General . Assembly .and .acknowledged .that .the .question .of .convening .a .high-level .conference .under . the .auspices .of .the .United .Nations .to .formulate .an .international .response .to .terrorism .in . all .its .forms .and .manifestations .could .be .considered .The .Heads .of .State .and .Government . further .recognized that international cooperation to fight terrorism must be conducted in recognized .that .international .cooperation .to .fight .terrorism .must .be .conducted .in .

      3 . A/59/2005, .paras .87–96 .and .annex .I, .chapter .II .

      . chapter .III . 1 5

      conformity .with .international .law .and .that .States .must .ensure .that .any .measures .taken . to .combat .terrorism .comply .with .their .obligations .under .international .law, .in .particular . human .rights .law, .refugee .law .and .international .humanitarian .law

      In .its .report, .the .High-level .Panel .had, .inter alia, .recommended .that .the .General . Assembly .adopt .a .definition .of .terrorism .and .proposed .certain .elements .to .be .included . therein 4 .The .Secretary-General .fully .endorsed .this .recommendation .in .his .report .and . stated .that .it .would .make .“clear .that, .in .addition .to .actions .already .proscribed .by .existing . conventions, .any .action .constitutes .terrorism .if .it .is .intended .to .cause .death .or .serious . bodily .harm .to .civilians .or .non-combatants .with .the .purpose .of .intimidating .a .population . or .compelling .a .Government .or .an .international .organization .to .do .or .abstain .from .doing . any .act”5 .He .strongly .urged .world .leaders .to .unite .behind .the .proposal .by .the .Panel .The . question .of .a .definition .of .terrorism .was .not .addressed .in .the .World .Summit .Outcome

      (ii) Establishment of a Peacebuilding Commission6

      The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .emphasized .the .need .for .a .coordinated, .coherent .and .integrated .approach .to .post-conflict .peacebuilding .and .reconciliation .with .a .view . to .achieving .sustainable .peace .In .this .regard, .they .recognized .the .need .for .a .dedicated . institutional .mechanism .to .address .the .special .needs .of .countries .emerging .from .conflict . towards .recovery, .reintegration .and .reconstruction, .and .to .assist .them .in .laying .the .foundation .for .sustainable .development .Therefore, .they .decided .to .establish .a .Peacebuilding . Commission .as .an .intergovernmental .advisory .body, .which .would .have .the .objective .of . bringing .together .all .relevant .actors .to .marshal .resources, .to .advise .on, .and .to .propose . integrated .strategies .for .post-conflict .peacebuilding .and .recovery .The .Commission .would . focus .attention .on .the .reconstruction .and .institution-building .efforts .necessary .for .recovery .from .conflict .and .support .the .development .of .integrated .strategies .in .order .to .lay . the .foundation .for .sustainable .development .Furthermore, .the .Peacebuilding .Commission .would .provide .recommendations .and .information .to .improve .the .coordination .of .all . relevant .actors .within .and .outside .the .United .Nations, .develop .best .practices, .help .ensure . predictable .financing .for .early .recovery .activities .and .extend .the .period .of .attention .by .the . international .community .to .post-conflict .recovery .In .doing .so, .the .Commission .would .act . in .all .matters .on .the .basis .of .consensus .of .its .members

      Moreover, .the .Commission .would .meet .in .various .configurations, .depending .on .the . country .under .consideration .The .following .representatives .would .be .included: .the .country .concerned, .the .other .countries .from .the .region .that .are .engaged .in .the .post-conflict . process, .the .countries .involved .in .relief .efforts, .the .relevant .regional .organizations, .the . major .financial, .troop .and .civilian .police .contributors, .the .senior .United .Nations .representatives .in .the .field, .and .the .relevant .regional .and .international .institutions

      4 . A/59/565 .and .Corr .1, .paras .163–164

      5 . A/59/2005, .para .91

      6 . See .also .section .3 .(c) .of .the .present .chapter, .dealing .with .“Other .peacekeeping .matters”

      1 6 . UNITED .NATIONS .JURIDICAL .YEARBOOK .2005

      (iii) Sanctions

      . The .Heads .of .State .and .Government .stated .in .the .World .Summit .Outcome .that .sanctions .should .be .implemented .and .monitored .effectively .with .clear .benchmarks, .be .periodically .reviewed .and .remain .for .as .limited .a...

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