Chapter III. General review of the legal activities of the United Nations and related intergovernmental organizations

SUMMARY

A. General review of the legal activities of the United Nations 1. Membership of the United Nations 155 2. Peace and security (a) Peacekeeping missions and operations (b) Political and peacebuilding missions (c) Other peacekeeping matters (d) Action of Member States authorized by the Security Council (e) Sanctions imposed under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations (f) Terrorism (g) Human rights and humanitarian questions considered by the Security Council (h) Missions of the Security Council 3. Disarmament and related matters (a) Disarmament machinery (b) Nuclear disarmament and non-proliferations issues (c) Biological and chemical weapons issues (d) Conventional weapons issues (e) Regional disarmament activities of the United Nations (f) Other issues 4. Legal aspects of peaceful uses of outer space (a) Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (b) General Assembly 5. Human Rights (a) Sessions of the United Nations human rights bodies and treaty bodies (b) Racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and all forms of discrimination (c) Right to development and poverty reduction (d) Right of peoples to self-determination (e) Economic, social and... (see full summary)

 
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  1. general review of the legal activities of the United Nations

    1. membership of the United Nations

      As of 31 December 2007, the number of Member States of the United Nations remained at 192

    2. Peace and security

      (

  2. Peacekeeping missions and operations

    (i) Peacekeeping operations and missions established in 2007

  3. The sudan

    On 31 July 2007, the Security Council adopted resolution 1769 (2007) by which it decided to authorize and mandate the establishment, for an initial period of 12 months, of an African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID) The Council further decided that the mandate of UNAMID should be as set out in paragraphs 54 and 55 of the report of the Secretary General and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission of 5 June 2007 1

    Accordingly, the mandate of UNAMID would be, inter alia, to contribute to the restoration of necessary security conditions for the safe provision of humanitarian assistance and to facilitate full humanitarian access throughout Darfur and to contribute to the protection of civilian populations under imminent threat of physical violence and prevent attacks against civilians, within its capability and areas of deployment, without prejudice to the responsibility of the Government of the Sudan UNAMID would also have to monitor and verify the implementation of various ceasefire agreements signed since 2004, and to assist with the implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement and any subsequent agreements The new mission was also mandated to assist the political process in order to ensure that it is inclusive and to support the African Union-United Nations joint mediation in its efforts to broaden and deepen commitment to the peace process, as well as to

    1 Report of the Secretary General and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission of

    5 June 2007 (S/2007/307/Rev 1)

    contribute to a secure environment for economic reconstruction and development, and the sustainable return of internally displaced persons and refugees to their homes Further, UNAMID would have to contribute to the promotion of respect for and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms in Darfur, to assist in the promotion of the rule of law in Darfur, including through support for strengthening an independent judiciary and the prison system, in consultation with relevant Sudanese authorities as well as to monitor and report on the security situation at the Sudan’s borders with Chad and the Central African Republic 2

    Moreover, the Council decided that UNAMID should monitor whether any arms or related material are present in Darfur in violation of the Agreements and the measures imposed by Security Council resolution 1556 (2004) of 30 July 2004

    The Security Council further decided that UNAMID, which should incorporate the African Mission in the Sudan (AMIS) personnel and the United Nations Heavy and Light Support Package to AMIS, should consist of up to 19,555 military personnel, including 360 military observers and liaison officers, and an appropriate civilian component including up to 3,772 police personnel and 19 formed police units comprising up to 140 personnel each

    The Council also decided that no later than October 2007, UNAMID should establish an initial operational capability for the headquarters through which operational directives would be implemented, and should establish financial arrangements to cover troops costs for all personnel deployed to AMIS It also decided that as of October 2007, UNAMID should complete preparations to assume operational command authority over the Light and Heavy Support Package and hybrid personnel in order to perform such tasks under its mandate as its resources and capabilities permit, immediately upon transfer of authority The Council decided that the transfer of authority should take place as soon as possible and no later than 31 December 2007, after UNAMID had completed all remaining tasks necessary to permit the implementation of all the elements of its mandate

    Finally, acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, the Security Council decided that UNAMID was authorized to take the necessary action in the areas of deployment of its forces, as it deems within its capabilities in order to protect its personnel, facilities, installations and equipment, and to ensure the security and freedom of movement of its own personnel and humanitarian workers as well as to support an early and effective implementation of the Darfur Peace Agreement, prevent the disruption of its implementation and armed attacks, and protect civilians, without prejudice to the responsibility of the Government of the Sudan

  4. Chad and the Central African Republic

    The Security Council adopted on 25 September 2007 resolution 1778 (2007), in which it approved the establishment in Chad and the Central African Republic of a multidimensional presence intended to help create the security conditions conducive to a voluntary, secure and sustainable return of refugees and displaced persons, and decided that this

    2 For further details on the operation’s tasks see paragraph 55 the report of the Secretary General and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission of 5 June 2007 (S/2007/307/Rev 1)

    chapter III 157

    multidimensional presence should include, for a period of one year, a United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) 3

    The Security Council decided that MINURCAT should have the mandate to select, train, advise and facilitate support to elements of the “police tchadienne pour la protection humanitaire”4 and to liaise with the national army, the gendarmerie and police forces, the nomad national guard, the judicial authorities and prison officials in Chad and the Central African Republic with the view to contribute to the creation of a more secure environment MINURCAT would also have to liaise with the Chadian Government and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in support of their efforts to relocate refugee camps which are in close proximity to the border, and to liaise closely with the Sudanese Government, the African Union, the African Union Mission in the Sudan (AMIS), the African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID) which will succeed it, the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in the Central African Republic (BONUCA), the Multinational Force of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (FOMUC) and the Community of Sahelo-Saharan States (CEN-SAD) to exchange information on emerging threats to humanitarian activities in the region

    The Security Council also decided to mandate MINURCAT to contribute to the monitoring and to the promotion and protection of human rights, with particular attention to sexual and gender-based violence, and to recommend action to the competent authorities in order to fight impunity MINURCAT was also mandated to support efforts aimed at strengthening the capacity of the Governments of Chad and the Central African Republic and civil society through training in international human rights standards, as well as to put and end to recruitment and use of children by armed groups, and to assist the Governments of Chad and, notwithstanding the mandate of BONUCA, the Central African Republic, in the promotion of the rule of law, including through support for an independent judiciary and a strengthened legal system

    The Security Council furthermore decided that MINURCAT should include a maximum of 300 police and 50 military liaison officers and an appropriate number of civilian personnel

    (ii) Changes in the mandate and/or extensions of time limits of ongoing peacekeeping operations or missions in 2007

  5. Côte d’ivoire

    The United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) was established by Security Council resolution 1528 (2004) of 27 February 2004 By resolution 1739 (2007) of 10 January 2007, resolution 1763 (2007) of 29 June 2007 and resolution 1765 (2007) of 16 July 2007, the Security Council extended the mandate of UNOCI and of the French forces which support it,5 until 30 June 2007, 16 July 2007 and 15 January 2008, respectively

    3 See paragraph 36 of the report of the Secretary-General of 10 August 2007 on the recommendations for the deployment of an international presence in the regions of eastern Chad and the northeastern Central African Republic (S/2007/488)

    4 See also paragraph 5 of Security Council resolution 1778 of 25 September 2007

    5 See also section d) ii) a of this chapter

    In its resolution 1739 (2007), the Security Council, having taken note of the report of the Secretary-General dated 4 December 2006, 6 decided that the mandate of UNOCI should also include its contribution to the security of the operations of identification of the population and registration of voters, within its capabilities and its areas of deployment, and that UNOCI should also assist in formulating a plan on the restructuring of the Defence and Security Forces and in preparing possible seminars on security sector reform to be organized by the African Union and ECOWAS

    Furthermore, the Security Council decided that UNOCI should provide as necessary, within is capabilities and its areas of deployment, in close cooperation with the United Nations Programme for Development, logistical support for the Independent Electoral Commission, in particular for the transportation of electoral material, and that the mandate of UNOCI should be expanded to include the support of the Government of Côte d’Ivoire in ensuring the neutrality and impartiality of public media by providing, as necessary, security of the premises of the Radio Télévision Ivoirienne (RTI)

    In resolution 1761 (2007) of 20 June 2007, the Security Council decided to extend the mandate of the Group of Experts7 until 31 October 2007 The Group of Experts would, as set out in resolution 1727 (2006) of 15 December 2006, report, inter alia, on the implementation of the measure imposed by...

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