Biotechnology research pattern in four SAARC countries from 2007 to 2016.

Author:Singh, Manendra
 
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1-Introduction--

The study explores the scientific relationship among four SAARC (1) (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) countries: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The biotechnology is the most researchable area now in the world. It has the strength to fill the large population needs and demands in coming future by which SAARC countries has been suffering from decades. Global Warming creates the cause of decline productivity of agriculture in all over the world. India and its adjacent countries agricultural systems are primarily depend on rainfall, which is regularly affected by the global warming. These countries have cumulated 1.71 billion populations which are largest in the world. They are also suffering in poverty, low income, water crisis, decreasing fertility of land and lower production of agriculture with global warming effect that will create the hazard in future. For securing future, it is necessary to enhance cooperation in the field of science and technology mainly biotechnology, because it has a capacity to reduce the future livelihood problem of these nations.

Scientometrics is a tool by which the state of science and technology can be observed, through the overall production of scientific literature, at a given level of specialization. It provides an approach for situating a country concerning the world, an institution with a country and even individual scientists about their peers. This study reveals the pattern of SAARC countries which is compared to know the author contribution pattern. The activity index counted individually of SAARC countries, but it shows the status of biotechnology research against world data. Year wise publication distribution growth rate enumerate the individual country research in the particular year. The collaboration coefficient tool used to evaluate the measurement of single and multi-author collaborative research pattern. The number of authorship pattern is an interesting part of any bibliometric study. By these scientometric tools, we able to present the current status as well as the future aspect of biotechnology research within the vicinity of SAARC countries. Every SAARC countries need to increase their agricultural production to serve the food for all but how it possible, either by individual, or collaborative research activity, so that we conduct the scientometric study and try to revel the objectives.

2--Review of Literature--

O'Neill (2) (1998) Inspect the authorship pattern in two theory based journals; one is from American journal Educational Theory (1955-1994) and another from Canadian journal, Journal of Educational Thought (1970-1974). He Judges that majority of authorships were single in both the journals regardless of the date of publication against de Solla Price's prediction that co-authorship would eventually increase and single-author paper will be extinct.

Gupta, et al. (3) examine Indian scientific research collaboration with South Asian countries and set a finding that India has vital collaborative link exist with Bangladesh rather than Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Nepal.

Sevan & Sharma (4) studied the biotechnology research work contribution of pre-defined central universities of India during 1997-2006. They have found the growth pattern of literature in biotechnology has consistently added by 15 articles in the year 1997 to 43 articles in 2006. The BHU identified as leading university that contributed 42.55 %, and there was a trend exists about collaborative research that two-authored papers dominated on three-authored papers.

Gopikuttan & Aswathy (5) studied Year-Wise form-wise, subject-wise classification of published articles. The study shows a maximum number of prolific authors and preferred journals of University of Kerala for the period of 13 years that was 2000 to 2012.

Biradar (6) studied for years 1994, 1999, and 2004 revealed that an average number of references per article during 1994, 1999 and 2004 were 10.6, 11.0 and 13.2 respectively. Out of 370 articles, two authored articles were 144 (38.9 %) followed by three authored articles 96 (25.9 %) and single authored articles 57 (15.4 %). Organization-wise contributions indicate that universities were major contributors with 31.6 % followed by colleges with 24 % and research institutions with 23.7 %.

Singh (7) examine the Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics out of 657 articles during 2006 to 2010 revealed that highest number of 144 articles were published in 2007, followed by 143 articles in 2006 and 131 articles in 2008. Authorship pattern indicates that 174 were two-authored per articles, 162 by three-authored per articles, and 145 four authored per articles. The Institution-wise contributions showed that...

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