After a strong showing in the 2018 midterm elections, Democrats will take control of the House of Representatives in January. Republicans, meanwhile, will retain the majority in the Senate and occupy the White House. Although House Democrats will likely push for lower defense spending than their GOP colleagues, the new Congress is unlikely to pass large cuts to military funding, analysts said.
"What does divided government mean for the defense topline? Probably not as much as one would think," retired Marine Corps Maj. Gen. Arnold Punaro, CEO of the Punaro Group, said in a recent white paper which looked at historical trends in military spending stretching back to the 1950s when different parties controlled the two chambers of Congress and the White House.
"Previous periods of divided government show that both the president and Congress have ultimately worked together when it came to how much money to spend on defense even though they would communicate and advertise their policy differences up to the last moment," said Punaro, who serves as vice chair of the board for the National Defense Industrial Association.
For example, during the six years of the Reagan administration when Republicans controlled the White House and Senate, and Democrats led the House, the defense base budget increased $25 billion annually on average, he noted.
Rep. Adam Smith, D-Wash., who is expected to become chairman of the House Armed Services Committee, has said that current levels of defense spending--$716 billion in fiscal year 2019--are too high.
"With history as a guide, the Democratic majority in the House will likely set a lower defense topline than requested" by the White House, Punaro said. There will also be predictable differences over policy issues such as nuclear weapons programs and arms control, he noted, and major weapons programs might receive extra scrutiny.
However, when Democrats control the House under a Republican administration, the final passed budget has usually been closer to the Senate's proposed funding levels for defense, Punaro said.
Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman Sen. Jim Inhofe, R-Okla., has said the defense budget should be at least $733 billion in fiscal year 2020, the amount that Pentagon officials had been planning for.
A few months ago, President Donald Trump directed the department to prepare a $700 billion...