Pharmacogenomics, Behavioural Intentions, Predictors, Malaysia.
Advances in pharmacogenomics technology research have, to a great extent, uncovered the differences in the genetic basis of interindividual responses to medication (Weng et al., 2013). Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is an evolving area in precision medicine with the goal of identifying an individual's response to drugs, detecting those at risk of developing adverse events, and guiding healthcare providers in terms of selecting the correct drug dose (Ji et al., 2018). Continuous research on PGx is necessary as Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) have been identified as a significant problem in the healthcare system (Austin, 2018). Since individuals react differently to certain medications, it is essential to understand individual variability in order to improve both the efficacy and the safety of drug prescribing. Understanding how a drug is metabolized, and which enzymes are involved in the process, is important in order to predict the potential and the extent of drug-drug interactions (Ishikawa & Hayashizaki, 2012).
The successful development and implementation of new technologies is heavily dependent on public support, as reflected in their intention to adopt the technology (Pin, 2009). Intention has been defined as one of the motivational factors that influence a behaviour and to indicate how hard people are willing to try or how much effort they would exert to perform the behaviour (Armitage & Conner, 2001). Many past studies have reported that intentions have revealed a significant positive relationship between intention and behaviour, and accurately predicted a variety of action tendencies (Salleh et al., 2015).
The conceptual framework used in this paper was developed based on the attitude towards biotechnology applications model proposed by Pardo et al. (2002) and Brehdahl's attitude model towards GM foods (1999). The model in Figure 1 begins with factors that are known to trigger behavioural intention, and the variables are arranged according to their assumed influence upon the subsequent variables. In this study, the overall intention towards adoption of PGx is determined by the specific perceptions with regard to risks and benefits (Amin et al., 2014) and moral concerns (Amin et al., 2011). General attitudinal factors such as engagement, trust in key players, and religiosity, are also included, since past studies have shown that these variables give causal interpretations to risk and benefit perception (Amin et al., 2014). The strategic management of PGx cannot be conducted as a one-way approach. Instead, communities in Malaysia need to participate in giving their views with regard to the successful implementation of the technology. Therefore this paper aims to assess the intention of the Malaysian stakeholders to adopt PGx and its predicting factors.
Figure 1 illustrates the conceptual framework of factors with regard to predicting public behavioural intentions towards PGx. The first construct is referred to as general factors. It consists of three components (engagement, trust in key...