health a nd welfare8 but has proposed no measures to miti-
gate or reduce emissions to date. e International Civil
Aviation Organization (ICAO) has agreed on a carbon
dioxide (CO2) sta ndard9 and osetting scheme for avia-
tion emissions called the Carbon Osetting and Reduc-
tion Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA).10 ese
measures aim for carbon-neutral growth in aviation emis-
sions from 2020 (i.e., emissions growth above 2020 levels
would be oset against emissions reductions in other sec-
tors). To ensure emissions decrease in line with the DDPP
reduction goal of two-thirds by 2050, further action will
be required by the United States and ICAO.
Section II of this chapter will rst look at the status
of aviation emissions regulation in the United States and
internationally, outlining the measures already agreed.
Section III will then consider the feasibility of reduc-
ing emissions by considering what options are available
to reduce emissions, including biofuels and operational
measures. Section IV will then look at the legal options
that could be used to ensure these reduct ions are achieved
at both domestic and international levels. Section V will
identify some co-benets that should be maximized as
measures are introduced to reduce emissions, and Section
VI will conclude.
While part of this chapter is a consideration of reduc-
tion of emissions at airports, this chapter will not discuss
transport to or from the airport or how to reduce emissions
from the airport buildings themselves, as these topics are
discussed elsewhere in the book.11 However, it is impor-
tant to note here that investments in public transport or
highways that reduce travel time or costs to ge t to airports,
while potentially reducing vehicle trac, could have the
adverse eect of encouraging people to y more.
roughout this chapter, where recommendations are
made or measures are detailed, the amount of potential
emissions reductions is stated if possible. If the amount
of potential reductions is not stated, it is because there
8. Finding at Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Aircraft Cause or Contribute
to Air Pollution at May Reasonably Be Anticipated to Endanger Public
Health and Welfare, 81 Fed. Reg. 54421, 54422 (Aug. 15, 2016) [hereinafter
9. Press Release, ICAO, ICAO Council Adopts New CO2 Emissions Standard
for Aircraft (Mar. 6, 2017), https://www.icao.int/Newsroom/Pages/ICAO-
ICAO CO2 Standard].
10. ICAO, Carbon Osetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation
based-measures.aspx (last visited Feb. 1, 2018).
11. See Part III, Energy Eciency, Conservation, and Fuel Switching in Build-
ings and Industry, and Part IV, Energy Eciency, Conservation, and Fuel
Switching in Transportation, of this book for more on this.
appears to be no publicly available information on the
actual or possible reductions to be achieved.
II. Status of Regulation of GHGs From
Aviation emissions are a signicant contributor to climate
change. is section will set out how U.S. aviation emis-
sions have grown (or decreased) between 1990 and 2014,
and what gases cause the warming eect of aviation. is
section will then set out the history of aviation regulation
in the United States and internationally, and look at the
feasibility of emissions reductions (what technologies or
methods exist that c an reduce aviation emissions). e sec-
tion will conclude with a look at reduction objectives in
the DDPP and also whether similar reduction goals have
been set in the United States or internationally.
A. U.S. Aviation Emissions Are a Significant
Contributor to Climate Change
Aviation is by no means insignicant in the context of
overall U.S. emissions. U.S. domestic aviation is currently
responsible for not only 3% of total U.S. emissions but
also 11% of emissions in the transport sector.12 Domes-
tic aviation compromises all ights that both take o and
land in the United States and includes commercial, mili-
tary, and recreational aviation, along with small aircraft.
e 29% of worldwide aviation emissions caused by U.S.
aviation (U.S. domestic and international ights depart-
ing the United States) represents 0.5% of all emissions
worldwide.13 (U.S. international aviation emissions are
measured (per the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) guidelines14) based on fuel purchased in
the United States for ights departing to another coun-
try.) U.S. domestic aviation emissions alone are responsible
for 18% of all aviation emissions worldwide.15 Aviation’s
emissions are projected to increase by 300% by 2050 if
no action is taken.16 e Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA, a unit of the U.S. Department of Transportation)
projects that U.S. aviation fuel consumption (domestic
and international) will grow by 49% from 2010 to 2035,
12. O T A Q, EPA, EPA T F
S A GHG E F A E 2 (2015)
14. C D W ., IPCC, 2006 IPCC G
N G G I 3.56 (2006).
16. G A CO2 E P 2050, supra note 4.