The subsystem of implicit knowledge management is a significant but little-studied topic in the knowledge economy. Implicit knowledge, dominating in qualitative terms over explicit knowledge, does not have specific methods of protection, business leaders do not have the skills to fully diagnose, protect, manage the implicit knowledge in the knowledge system of a high-tech enterprise as a whole (Davenport et al., 2002).
The knowledge management in an innovative enterprise involves understanding the essence of the knowledge system as a set of implicit and explicit knowledge. Implicit knowledge includes technical skills, values, mental models, experience, mastery, intuition (Lesser, 2000). The structure of explicit knowledge includes: objects of industrial property confidential documented information, objects of copyright. Innovation is considered to be an enterprise that has implemented (completed) innovation in the last three years (Indikatory, 2016). An innovative organization, possessing knowledge management, must have methods of its management, which (in this study) means the diagnosis of knowledge, differentiation of explicit, implicit knowledge, the definition of localization of knowledge in the organization, its carriers (Mortensen & Bloch, 2005). The issues of knowledge management require of studying from the positions of professional competences of innovative organizations, whose integral part are the issues of knowledge management.
The management of implicit knowledge as part of the knowledge of an innovative organization is characterized in the theoretical economic literature as follows:
Lack of research in the field of analysis of localization of implicit knowledge of the organization.
Lack of practice-oriented work, contributing to the diagnosis of the state of affairs in the field of management of implicit knowledge in the organization.
Lack of research in the field of knowledge management at specific enterprises (in particular, Russian, high-tech).
Lack of works investigating the issues of professional competence of managers in the field of knowledge management.
Gaps in previous studies led to the object, the subject of research, research tasks.
The object of the study is the system of knowledge in a high-tech enterprise. The subject of the research is the subsystem of implicit knowledge management.
The research objectives of this study are as follows:
Definition of the role of implicit knowledge in the knowledge system of a high-tech enterprise.
Determination of methods of protection of implicit knowledge in a high-tech enterprise.
Formation of requirements to professional competencies of the head of a high-tech enterprise in the field of implicit knowledge management.
The Theoretical Development
The study of implicit knowledge management in the innovation organization carried out in the following areas: (1) in the field of organizations as systems with the differentiation of management in the technical, biological, socio-economic systems; (2) in the field of human resource management as a source of knowledge of organization; (3) in the field of knowledge management system in the organization generated by the dominant in the organization of the leadership concept; (4) in the field of hierarchy of managerial values in the business models.
In the field of organizations as systems with the differentiation of management in the technical, biological, socio-economic systems the objects of this study are the works by Adizes & Goulman etc. (Adizes, 2008; Adizes, 2013; Goulman et al., 2015). Adizes noted that the management of implicit knowledge differs from the management of explicit knowledge in the socio-economic system. In addition, it is on the basis of "knowledge management" the socioeconomic system differs from the technical one (Adizes, 2008; Goulman et al., 2015). In the study Goulman et al., 2015 highlighted the role of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence, according to the authors, is part of the implicit knowledge that requires its management (Goulman et al., 2015).
Experience in the management of implicit knowledge, which led the company to growth on a global scale, is the object of research Nanaka (Nanaka, 2007). This study develops, according to the authors, the practice of the study the issue of management of implicit knowledge on the example of a specific Russian enterprise. Accounting the distinguishing characteristics of management systems (in the biological, spiritual organizations (systems)->, >-in the management of technical systems) in the management of socioeconomic system is reflected in the development in the last decade of the "ecosystem" that is self-adapting to the conditions of the external environment, ensuring the functioning of the enterprise for a long time. According to the critical comments of the author's insufficient attention to the management of the organization as a system devoted to the management of tacit knowledge, including methods of its generation, accumulation, protection.
In the field of human resource management as a source of knowledge of organization the authors based on the works by Goulman et al. (2015); Senge (1999); Chesbrough (2006), where organizations are seen as a living system. Unlike biological systems, the socio-economic system deals with the issues of production, knowledge management, which is understood as the management of human potential. The system (organization, company) generates its own unique management system based on tacit knowledge (i.e. experience, skills, abilities, mental models, whose carrier is an individual-an employee of the organization). The uniqueness of the management system in socio-economic society based on scale effects of the use of tacit knowledge due to basic patterns of behavior and activities of people in organizations, i.e. organizational behavior. According to authors critical comments of the authors in the management of human resources in the Russian practice devoted to the issues of inclusion of the individual (employee's) vehicle of the implicit knowledge in production activities of the organization, institutionalized understanding of this process.
In the knowledge management system in the organization generated by the dominant in the organization of the concept of leadership the authors analyzed the works by Davenport & Prusak (Davenport & Prusak, 1998), Davenport, Gilbert, Heinrich (Davenport et al., 2002), Carayannis & Papadopoulos (Carayannis & Papadopoulos, 2011), Dierendonck (Dierendonck, 2011). The paper by Carayannis notes the local influence of innovation on the solution of special issues (Carayannis & Papadopoulos, 2011). According to Dierendonck in the successful organization the staffs are the followers of the leader (Dierendonck, 2011). At the same time the head himself must have a certain set of qualities of the "serving" leader. The presence of these qualities in the manager-leader provides the obtaining of implicit knowledge from employees, as the basis of trust between the manager-leader and employees. This study, in the authors' opinion, develops the idea of professional competence of the head of the organization.
The achievement of this studies as the authors' conclusions regarding to the subject of this study are as follows: the essence of the (national) knowledge management models of the leaders in the technological ways is to develop of methodological tools for the extraction of explicit, tacit knowledge in the organization as a system on macro, meso, micro-levels. In the work of Dammann (Dammann, 2011). TOLS-concept (Transaktives Organisationales Lernen) is studied. This concept includes: localization of knowledge, transfer, generation of knowledge, accumulation of knowledge, transformation of knowledge in the organization (Dammann, 2011). In the authors' opinion, this work develops the position of the TOLS-concept of knowledge localization, knowledge extraction from its carriers. The authors of this study believe that in the field of theories, concepts of leadership are the lack of use of irrational components (implicit knowledge) in the model of knowledge management in...