Appendix 2. 'First-to-File'/'First-to-Register' Countries

AuthorChristopher P. Bussert - James R. Sims III
Pages358-359
358
Appendix 2
“FIRST-TO-FILE”/
“FIRST-TO-REGISTER”
COUNTRIES
Trademark rights are primarily established by filing an application and/or
registering the mark.12
1. Either first user or first applicant is eligible to register.
2. First user is considered the owner of the mark, but first applicant is presumed to be
the owner if there is no proof to the contrary.
Afghanistan
African Union
Albania
Algeria
Angola
Anguilla
Argentina
Austria
OAPI (African Intel-
lectual Property
Organization)
Bahrain
Barbados
Belarus
Belize
Benelux
Bolivia
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria
Chile1
China
Colombia
Democratic Republic of
Congo
Dominican Republic
Croatia
Cuba
Curaçao
Czech Republic
Djibouti
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Estonia
European Union
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Guatemala
Guinea
Honduras
Hungary
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Japan
Jordan
Kazakhstan
North Korea
South Korea
Kosovo
Kuwait
Laos
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Mexico
Moldova
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco2
Nepal
Nicaragua
Norway
Oman
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Qatar
Romania
Russian Federation
Saudi Arabia
Republic of Serbia
Bus56056_08_App_355-406.indd 358 9/13/16 10:59 AM

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