Anemia is a common condition among elders and it is a significant risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality, reducing not only functional capacity and mobility but also quality of life (1). An abnormally low hemoglobin level due to pathological condition(s) is defined as anemia. Iron deficiency is one of the most common, but not the only cause of anemia. Other causes of anemia include chronic infections, particularly malaria, hereditary hemoglobinopathies, and folic acid deficiency. It is worth noting that multiple causes of anemia can coexist in an individual or in a population and contribute to the severity of the anemia (2). However, many physicians continue to neglect the significance of anemia as a serious clinical condition in the elderly (3). Anemia is a major cause of morbidity in cancer patients resulting in poor physical performance, prognosis and therapy outcome (4).
Anemia is measured according to the amount of hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen, in RBCs. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines anemia as less than 13 grams of hemoglobin per deciliter for men and less than 12 grams of hemoglobin per deciliter for women. Approximately three million Americans suffer from anemia. Women and people with chronic diseases are at highest risk of anemia (5).
Review of Literature
Gupta et al (6) studied Indian contribution in dengue fever research consisted of 910 papers, which increased from 27 papers in 2003 to 193 papers in 2012, witnessing an annual average growth rate of 28.19%. The average citation per paper scored by India was 3.27, the least among the top 15 most productive countries during 2003-12.
Gupta et al (7) analysed 37049 papers on mouth cancer, indexed in Scopus database during 2003-12, experiencing an annual average growth rate of 5.15% and citation impact of 9.72. The 15 most productive countries account for 88.14% share in world output, with largest share (26.79%) from USA.
Gupta & Adarsh Bala (8) studied research output of India in Alzheimer's disease research during 2002-11. The study indicates that India ranks at 16th position (with 900 papers) among top 20 top countries with a global publication share of 1.33% (rising from 0.39% in 2002 to 2.36% during 2011) and an annual average publication growth rate of 31.92% during 2002-11.
Klaewsongkram and Reantragoon (9) analyzed the asthma research of Asia- Pacific countries during 1998-2007 using PUBMED database. The results found that Asia-Pacific countries, Australia and Japan are the leading countries in contributing the highest research output on asthma.
Kloft et al (10) compared 8874 publications (with 20.55% of their publications involving international collaboration and scoring a citation impact of 24.48 per paper) from UK and 3341 publications (with 27.63% of their publications involving international collaboration and scoring a citation impact of 17.62 per paper) in asthma research.
Gupta & Adarsh Bala (11) studied that Indian publications output on bone marrow research consisted of 2613 papers during 2003-12, which increased from 174 papers in 2003 to 397 papers in 2012, witnessing an annual average growth rate of 10.04%. The international collaborative share of India in overall bone marrow research was 11.56% during 2003-12, which increased from 10.43% during 2003-07 to 12.18% during 2008-12.
Raj Kumar Bhardwaj (12) studied a bibliometric study of literature on celiac disease. The study analysed 14356 papers published during the period. USA is found to be most productive country in celiac disease research which has 19.68% share of total world publications. The study concluded that the significant area of celiac disease research remains the medicine which has (86.82 percent) share of total research output.
Jeyshankar and Rameshbabu (13) analysed the Leukemia research output carried out during the year 1960-2011. The study indicates that the overall growth rate of literature output is found to be positive with an increasing trend in leukemia research throughout the study period. Two and more authored papers constitute majority of the contribution and degree of collaboration had a maximum value of 0.96. The result shows that research development activities are on increasing trend in leukemia research in India.
Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study was to analyze the research output of India on Anemia Disease in the national and global contexts, as reflected in its publications output during 1993-2013. The study has the following objectives: (i) To study the Indian research output, its growth, and global publications share and citation impact, (ii) to study the patterns of international collaboration and identification of major collaborators, (iii) to study the contribution by sub-fields, (iv) to study the most productive Indian institutions, (v) to identify the most prolific authors and their institutions, (vi) to identify the characteristics of highly cited papers.
Methodologies and Source of Data
This study Scopus multidisciplinary Database has been used to retrieve and extract relevant data on (http://www.scopus.com/search/) Anemia in India and other most productive countries for the 21 years (1993-2013). An advanced search strategy involving Anemia as the keyword was used to search and download data using Title, Abstract, and Keywords fields together, resulting in downloading of 5085 records on India related to Anemia disease. A total of 5085 records were 31559 citations received to these publications were transferred into Microsoft Excel 2007, and data were analysed and tabulated based on the objectives.
Year-Wise Growth of Publications on Anemia Disease
It is found that, a total 5085 research papers are published during the period 1993-2013, which have received 31559 citations. Table 1 indicates that the highest numbers of publications (739) was in 2012, which have received 178 citations with an average of 0.56 citations per publications. The second highest numbers of publications (723) was in 2013, which...