Anatomy of a pandemic: tuberculosis today.

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Almost a third of the world's population is infected with Microbacterium Tuberculosis, the bacteria that causes TB. 1.8 million died from the disease in 2008.

There are currently about 9.4 million cases of TB

TB is the seventh-largest killer on Earth. 1.8 million deaths per year.

REGIONAL BREAKDOWN NUMBER OF GLOBAL TB CASES

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INCIDENCE RATES NUMBER OF CASES PER 100,000 * = 10 people INDIA 168 ***************** CHINA 98 ********** SOUTH AFRICA 948 ******************************************* ******************************************* SWAZILAND 1198 ******************************************* ******************************************* ************************* BOLIVIA 155 **************** MALI 319 ******************************** CHILE 12 * TB THRIVES IN + Overcrowded urban areas + Living units with poor ventilation

HISTORY OF TREATMENT BATTLES AGAINST TB

1921

First TB vaccine, BCG, is tested in humans.

1944

Successful use of the antibiotic streptomycin.

1945

BCG vaccine becomes increasingly popularized, and by the mid- to late 1950s is widely administered to infants and children.

1951

Antibiotic isoniazid first used to treat TB.

1960

Combination drug therapy promoted as a way to cure TB-other efforts include milk pasteurization, testing cattle for TB, vaccinating entire populations, mass radiography for the early detection of disease, triple therapy for every infected patient, isolating the infected and reducing household overcrowding.

1970s

Clinical trials of DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short-course) program begins in India, which emphasizes improved drug regimens.

1993

DOTS is formally introduced in India. It is currently the only strategy proven effective in controlling TB on a mass scale. India continues to have the highest number of TB cases in the world.

THE BLACK MARKET

Experts estimate that worldwide sales of conterfeit drugs will reach approximately $75 billion by the end of 2010.

In...

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