An analysis of Research publication on Colorectal Cancer in Asian Countries.

Author:Chinnaraj, Murugan

Introduction: As per World Health Organization factsheet Noncommunicable diseases like cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes kill forty million populations every year which is equal to seventy percent of death globally of which cancer accounts for 8.8 million. "Cancer is a dreaded one and the fear becomes real only when cancer touches oneself or those close to you" (1). As per GLOBOCAN 2012 figure presented below, the estimated number of cases worldwide is 1, 40, 67,894 of which Lung, Breast, and Colorectal are in the top three cases. While comparing the estimated number of cases worldwide and Asia notice 67,63,030 cases i.e. 48.07% of the estimated number of cases is in Asia. Lung, stomach, Breast, and Colorectum are the most prevalent cases in Asia. It is one of the third most common cancers that affect men and second among the women. Pourhoseingholi (2012); J. Sung (2007) Increased burden of colorectal cancer in Asia reveals that there is an increasing rise in incidence and mortality rate of Colorectal Cancer (CRC) in Asia which was considered previously low by Boyle & Levin (2008). Asia must take steps to prevent such emerging epidemic CRC related cases. Unlike developed countries most of the Asian countries access to health care for screening purpose is low, due to lack of awareness among the people Pourhoseingholi (2012); J. Sung, (2007); J. J. Sung et. al., (2005).

To reduce such impact and burden on society various agencies like world health organization, American Cancer society etc. along with several other organizations have been taking several steps. One among such steps is the 2030 agenda for sustainable development by WHO "Cancer Prevention and Control through an Integrated Approach" resolution 2017 to reduce the premature mortality from cancer (2).

AS per notifications of American Cancer society the abnormal changes in genes structure or abnormal growth of the cell in colon or rectum is known as colorectal cancer. Colorectal Cancer takes the form of a polyp (a noncancerous growth) that develops inside the colon or rectum and grows slowly, for over a period of time i.e. 10 to 20 years (Stryker et al., (1987); Winawer & Zauber, (2002). An adenomatous polyp, or adenoma, is the most commonly found among all individuals will eventually develop one or more adenomas Bond, (2000); Schatzkin et. al., (1994). Although all adenomas have the potential to become cancerous 10% are estimated to progress to invasive cancer Levine & Ahnen (2006); Risio (2010). The likelihood that an adenoma will become cancerous increases as it becomes larger Pickhardt et al., (2013). But it must be clear that adenocarcinoma accounts for approximately 96% of all CRCs Stewart et. al., (2006). Early CRC often has no symptoms, which requires screening. Screening facilities and lack of awareness are noticed among the Asian population which acts as a major hindrance from prevention of such CRC related threats; for which Asia must take immediate action to prevent and provide cost-effective screening facilities and extensive research and awareness on CRC Pourhoseingholi (2012); J. Sung (2007); J. J. Sung et al., (2005).

In line with this, from an academic point of view it is important to understand what are the steps taken by the academicians related to CRC research, i.e. exploring the types of scholarly communications available, who contribute extensively are there any collaboration in the CRC research and which countries in Asia contribute most.

There are number of studies conducted for different field of research by various authors like in the field of Oncology research by Patra & Bhattacharya (2013); Ranganathan (2014) covering different databases; based on various parameters like research growth, author productivity, authorship pattern, geographical distribution of the literature, global share of international collaborative papers and major partner countries and patterns of research communication. Similarly, in the field of cancer scholarly output like mouth cancer, lymphoma cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer were analyzed by several authors like and B. M. Gupta, Gupta, & Ahmed (2014); R. Gupta & Gupta (2014); Brij Mohan Gupta & Gupta (2015); Singh et. al., (2016) evaluated the literature growth, citation impact, share of international collaborative publications, publication output by geographical areas and type of research, treatment methods and geographical areas; publication productivity and citation impact of leading Indian organizations and authors.

Search results also revealed that scientific literature related to chronic diseases, virus etc. like diarrhea disease Khatun & Ahmed (2011), study on the publication of 'Osteoarthritis" research Thirumagal (2013), Ebola Virus Bhardwaj (2016), research efforts in measles Bala & Gupta (2012), Nephrology research output Murugan, C (2017), mycobacterial tuberculosis and leprosy in India Nishy & Rahul (2016), output in glaucoma research R. Gupta, Gupta, Kshitij, & Bala (2014) tuberculosis research output B. M. Gupta & Bala (2011), chronic liver disease research Naheem, Nagalingam, & Ramesha (2017), on aspects of allergy Dwivedi (2016), CVD research Saquib et. al., (2017), dental sciences studies Kaur & Gupta (2010), publication trends in food-borne disease research Kolle & Shankarappa (2017) were analyzed using Bibliometric and Scientometric by taking various databases like PubMed, Scopus, Thomson Reuters. A publication which includes growth, citation quality, format, Geographical contribution, subjectwise contribution, collaborative linkages, leading institutions, prolific authors, global publications share, citation impact, Time Series Analysis, Lotka's law, Bradford's law, Zipf Law, doubling time were analyses etc. using tools like Bibexcel, Histcite. Even in colorectal cancer output on Indian R. Gupta, Gupta, & Ahmed (2016) was found using Scopus database for a period of 2005-14. It was found that CRC research output using Scopus database for a period of 2005-2014 concentrating on Indian publications considering aspects like i.e. international collaborative publications, publication output by geographical areas and, type of research, treatment methods and geographical areas and citation impact of leading Indian organizations and authors have been contributed in selected field of research. Since there is a vast difference between Scopus and PubMed, "Scopus is a type of "federated search interface", as it allows searchers to use a common/standardized search form to query the content found across its various sources. That means any database-specific functionality, for example the native PubMed search interface's ability to "map" to relevant Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is not available when using the Scopus interface, nor is the ability to limit a search to the content of a single source database which is included in Scopus" Dina (2015). Now no one has made an attempt on this study will throw a light on CRC research output that is available on PubMed database.

The coining of the term by Nalimov (1969) "the application of these quantitative methods which deals with the analysis of science viewed as an...

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