And now, the aftermath: Canadian politics after the election, the near-coalition and the change in Liberal leadership.

Author:Milner, Henry

It was not only the weaknesses of our economic institutions, but also of our political institutions, that were signalled by events in the fall of 2008. The first manifestation came in September when Prime Minister Harper, claiming that Parliament was dysfunctional, asked Governor General Michaelle Jean to dissolve Parliament and thus free him of the obligation to comply with his own fixed election date law. No one complained too much when she went along, since Parliament truly was dysfunctional.

The sad story of how we came to this is recounted by longtime Parliament-watcher Gary Levy. In analyzing our failure to adapt our institutions to the recent spate of minority parliaments, he concludes that when successive leaders play fast and loose with basic conventions of parliamentary government, it is only a matter of time until there's a political explosion.

Next came the October election, the results of which hardly justified the premature dissolution. A record low turnout returned another Harper minority in an election whose only memorable development was the repudiation of Stephane Dion's Liberals.

No sooner had we settled down for a few more years of a Harper minority than the Governor General again found herself forced to enter the muddy parliamentary waters. By accepting Harper's request to prorogue Parliament in early December, she saved the new government from defeat at the hands of a Liberal-NDP coalition supported by the Bloc Quebecois. Bruce Hicks looks at the thin set of historical precedents for this kind of vice-regal intervention.

The fallout from her decision included an unprecedented action, at least for the modern era, by the Liberal caucus. Instead of becoming prime minister in a Lib-Lab coalition or leaving the political stage by resignation, Stephane Dion was forced out by his own caucus, which then anointed Michael Ignatieff

The core of Dion's electoral strategy had been the attempt to persuade Canadians to accept a carbon tax (the "Green Shift"). The strategy failed. In the aftermath, it is understandable that the Liberals eschew policy and simply bask in better poll results (at time of writing they have drawn slightly ahead of the Conservatives). But should they return to power, they cannot rely on their leader's family biographies as guide to policy. At their May convention in Vancouver, Ignatieff proposed a sensible reform to Employment Insurance: relax eligibility during the recession and eliminate the present...

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