Adoption and usage of information systems in present day organizations is growing rapidly. The increased quality of new information systems with their benefits is major factors that explain their massive use in almost every type of organization. The application of computing/information systems in libraries has been a subject of interest to libraries and professional librarians for more than sixty-five (65) years (Rochtanek & Matthews, 2002). Recently, libraries have sought to increasingly implement software solutions that involved distributed networking and access to remote information resources through the deployment of various library information systems. An Information System (IS) is generally considered to be a set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate and disseminate data and information which equally provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective (Sadeh & Ellingsen, 2005).
Adoption of ILMS has come a long way of libraries in Nigeria, over an often irregular path, since the 1930s, when elite libraries began to integrate IBM equipment into the circulation routines of their library services. However, serious implementation of information technology to library services began in Nigerian university libraries in the early 1990s (Nok, 2006). Individual attempts at library automation such as the one by the University of Lagos, University of Ibadan, and Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, in the mid-1970s and 1980s, collapsed largely because of lack of technical know-how relating to software development and maintenance of hardware (Alabi, 1987).
Agboola (2000) stated that the greatest impulse to library automation in university libraries in Nigeria so far came from a World Bank project. The World Bank gave automation in the university libraries as one of its considerations for assistance. As a result, the National University Commission (NUC) allocated one microcomputer and a four-user local area network version of the TINLIB (The information Navigator) software to each of the 20 partaking libraries in 1992. This was after an agreement had been reached between the NUC and the University Librarians that all Federal Universities use common software.
However, missing in the literature are factors that led to adoption of ILMS in Nigerian university libraries. Studies conducted by Alabi (1987), Ogunleye (1997), Agboola (2000), Adegbore (2010) and Okewale and Adetiminrin (2011) were all focused on automation of university library while issues of factors determining adoption of ILMS were just paraphrased. Integrated library management system are being developed or purchased by libraries especially university libraries who are adjudged the most developed libraries in Nigeria (Ogunsola, 2005) for the routine functions of acquisition, cataloguing, serial processing, etc in the library. These software and other computer accessories do not come cheaply. The software are costly, have to be preserved and the annual maintenance agreement serviced (Ayankola, 2012). It is therefore, expected that these software should bring out results. The major retrogress in this respect is that once the software breaks down, access to books and other information materials are constrained. It is against this background that this study sought to determine adoption factors of ILMS in Nigerian University Libraries.
This study views library as a single unit of analysis as far as adoption of integrated library management system is concerned. For this reason, this study searched for theory or model of studying adoption of information systems in organization. In the light of this, the study found Al-Mamary, Shamsuddin, and Aziati (2014) Management Information Systems Adoption by Organizations (MISAO) model relevant simply for the fact that the Al-Mammary et al (2014) views organizations as a single unit of analysis. Hence, this study equally views libraries as single unit of analysis and adopted their MIS adoption model.
Three major categories as important dimensions of management information system (MIS) adoption in organizations were proposed by (Al-Mamary, Shamsuddin, & Aziati, 2014) they were technological, organizational and people factors. The authors used the variables to test factors influencing the adoption of MIS by the telecommunication companies in Yemen and validated the outcome model through a qualitative study conducted with the resultant model referred to as management information system adoption by organization (MISAO) model.
Al-Mamary, Shamsuddin, and Aziati (2014) Management Information System Adoption by Organization (MISAO) Model is an adoption of information model focusing on organization as a unit of analysis. The model was proposed after synthesizing from the literature on MIS adoption in organizations and interviews with some of the employees of telecommunications companies in Yemen based on a theoretical framework that took into consideration the technological, organizational and people dimensions that might affect MIS adoption in organizations. The model is based on seven factors. Those factors are categorized into three categories which are technological, organizational and people characteristics.
The model guided this study in the bid to find out adoption factors of integrated library management system by libraries. Technological characteristics had three variables which were MIS system quality, MIS output quality and MIS service quality. And for the purpose of this study, technological characteristics was renamed as technological factors and was still modified by the three variables mentioned above. The second factor in the model is organizational characteristics and for the purpose of this study was adapted as library factors. This construct had two modifying variables which were top management support and user-training. The third construct in the model was people characteristics which was adapted as Librarians factors. Librarians factors was modified by computer self-efficacy and user experience. These constructs as modified in this study guided the libraries' adoption of ILMS aspect of this work.
The justification for the modification was based on the fact that the study which first introduced the model was carried out in a field different to librarianship while the information systems studied was equally not the same with the one in this studied. The modification was also necessary in order to allow for other items to be adapted to the constructs of the model.
Answers were provided to the following research questions.
What are the factors that are considered by Nigerian university libraries before adopting ILSM??
What is the influence of technological factors on adoption of ILMS by university libraries in Nigeria?
What is the influence of library factors on adoption of ILMS by university libraries in Nigeria?
What is the influence of Librarians' factors on adoption of ILMS by university libraries in Nigeria?
What are the types of ILMS adopted by Nigerian university libraries?
What are the factors responsible for migration by Nigerian university libraries from one library software to the other?
What are the ways of minimizing errors in the adoption of ILMS in Nigerian university libraries
This study utilized qualitative method in the data gathering process of the research. The reason for using this form of investigation was that it is insufficient to answer the research questions set for this study. The survey design was adopted in this study; the population of the study comprised of twenty-eight (28) systems librarians in the twenty-eight (28) Nigerian university libraries selected for this study. The yardstick for the selection of these universities was based on evidence of having implemented an ILMS-Integrated Library Management System since the aim of the study was to determine adoption factors of integrated library management systems in Nigerian university libraries.
Due to the small number of respondents in the selected universities, this study adopted total enumeration technique. This was to ensure that data collected will be a true representation of the situation in the selected university libraries.
This study opted to conduct an in-depth interview of the systems librarians judging by their small number (one each from the selected university libraries) to elicit information on the determinants of ILMS adoption in their libraries. The data collection instrument was an interview checklist synthesized from the constructs of the adapted model. The interview technique enables the researcher to collect firsthand information about the respondents' knowledge, values, attitudes, beliefs and preferences. The structured interview schedule contained twenty six (26)...