19 See EAC Treaty, supra note 5, art. 5(1).
20 Id., at prmbl. paras. 12, 15 & 16.
21 Id; see id., art. 3(2)-(6) (stating the procedure for granting membership status).
22 See, e.g., Dave Opiyo & PPS, East Africa: Rwanda and Burundi Join EAC,
ALLAFRICA.COM (June 19, 2007), http://allafrica.com/stories/200706190458.
html; Angelo Izama, Emmanuel Gyehazo & Risdel Kasasira, East Africa:
Rwanda, Burundi Join EAC Today, ALLAFRICA.COM (June 18, 2007), http://
23 See, e.g., EAC, Admission to the Community, http://www.eac.int/
about-eac/admission-to-the-eac.html (last visited Feb. 11, 2012); see also
David Muwanga, East Africa: South Sudan Ready to Join EAC – Salva Kiir,
ALLAFRICA.COM (Jul. 24, 2011), http://allafrica.com/stories/201107261840.
html (last visited Feb. 11, 2012); East Africa: South Sudan ‘Free to Join EAC’,
ALLAFRICA.COM (Jul. 12, 2011), http://allafrica.com/stories/201107130907.
html; Zephania Ubwani, East Africa: Why EAC Doors Are Wide Open to Juba,
ALLAFRICA.COM (Jul. 8, 2011), http://allafrica.com/stories/201107110002.html.
24 See, e.g., EAC, Admission to the Community, http://www.eac.int/about-eac/
admission-to-the-eac.html (last visited Feb. 11, 2012); Sudan’s bid to join EAC
rejected as South Sudan’s deferred, SUDAN TRIBUNE (Nov. 30, 2011), http://www.
sudantribune.com/Sudan-s-bid-to-join-EAC-rejected,40873; Sudan’s bid to join
EAC quashed by Uganda & Tanzania, SUDAN TRIBUNE (Nov. 27, 2011), http://
25 See generally EAC Treaty, supra note 5, art. 5(2)(a),(c),(g).
26 Id., art. 111(1).
27 Id., art. 111(2)(a).
28 Id., art. 111(2)(b).
29 Id., art. 111(2)(c).
30 WWF, CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON EAST AFRICA 2 (2006), http://www.
31 See, e.g., STOCKHOLM ENV’T INST., ECONOMICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE: KENYA
3-9 (2009); NICK HEPTWORTH & MARISA GOULDEN, CLIMATE CHANGE IN UGANDA:
UNDERSTANDING THE IMPLICATIONS AND APPRAISING THE RESPONSE (2008); George
Obulutsa, Climate change to Hit Tanzania GDP, Farmers: Study, REUTERS
(Oct. 1, 2009), http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/10/01/us-tanzania-climate-
idUSTRE59033D20091001; Finnigan wa Simbeye, Tanzania: Climate Change
Dogs Economic Growth, ALLAFRICA.COM (Nov. 14, 2011), http://allafrica.com/
32 Dr. Moses Amweelo, Africa: Climate change could affect our growth,
ALLAFRICA.COM (June 18, 2010), http://allafrica.com/stories/201006210578.html.
33 See, e.g., CHARLES EHRHART & MICHELLE TWENA, CLIMATE CHANGE AND
POVERTY IN TANZANIA: REALITIES AND RESPONSE OPTIONS FOR CARE, CARE INT’L
POVERTY-CLIMATE CHANGE INITIATIVE (2006).
34 See, e.g., ACTIONAID, East Africa Drought (describing recurrent droughts),
east-africa-drought (last visited Feb. 10, 2012); Felicity Lawrence, Drought in
East Africa the result of climate change and conﬂict, THE GUARDIAN, 4 (July 4,
change; Tanzania: Zanzibar Helps Flood Victims, ALLAFRICA.COM (Feb. 13, 2012)
(describing raging ﬂoods) http://allafrica.com/stories/201202140448.html.
35 See, e.g., Katy Migiro, East Africa: Region Should Be Prepared for Further
Food Insecurity – Weather Forecasters, ALLAFRICA.COM (Feb. 13, 2012), http://
36 According to the Washington-based International Food Policy Research
Institute (IFPRI), the sub-region’s aggregate hunger index is worrying, with the
hunger situation in Kenya and Uganda ranked as “serious”, that in Tanzania and
Rwanda “alarming”, and Burundi’s stubbornly remaining “extremely alarming”.
See IFPRI, GLOBAL HUNGER INDEX 2011 1, 4 (2011), http://www.ifpri.org/sites/
default/ﬁles/publications/ghi11.pdf (showing a percentage increase in hunger
index of +21, Burundi was the biggest loser, globally).
37 See REPUBLIC OF UGANDA, CLIMATE CHANGE: UGANDA NATIONAL ADAPTATION
PROGRAMMES OF ACTION 12 (2007); see also ADAM CORNER, HIDDEN HEAT: COM-
MUNICATING CLIMATE CHANGE IN UGANDA, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES (2011);
Adam Corner, Climate Change in Uganda: “The biggest unreported story of
our time”, THE CARBON BRIEF BLOG (Mar. 14, 2011), http://www.carbonbrief.
38 NIDOS, KENYA CLIMATE CHANGE FACTSHEET 3 (2009), http://www.nidos.
org.uk/downloads/KenyaFactsheet.pdf; NIDOS, TANZANIA CLIMATE CHANGE
FACTSHEET 3 (2006), http://www.nidos.org.uk/downloads/TanzaniaFactsheet.pdf;
NIDOS, UGANDA CLIMATE CHANGE FACTSHEET 2 (2009), http://www.nidos.org.
39 For instance, the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (“IPCC”)
has noted the recent observations of malaria vector in the central highlands of
Kenya, where no such vectors have previously been recorded; this has largely
been attributed to observed micro-climate change due to land-use changes,
including reclamation of swamps for agricultural use. See IPCC, CLIMATE
CHANGE 2007: SYNTHESIS REPORT. CONTRIBUTION OF WORKING GROUPS I, II AND
III TO THE FOURTH ASSESSMENT REPORT OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON
CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) (2007).
40 See Impacts of Climate Change, OXFAM, http://www.oxfam.org.au/explore/
climate-change/impacts-of-climate-change/ (last visited March 23, 2012).
41 THE WORKING GRP. ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND DEV., AFRICA, UP IN SMOKE? 18
42 See, e.g., Meera Selva, Kenyan Army Steps in as Cattle Rustling Turns Let.
hal, THE INDEPT. (July 23, 2005), http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/
Schools closed as cattle raids force thousands to ﬂee, IRIN (May 29, 2007),
http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportId=72430; Kenya: Hundreds
displaced in cattle rustling clashes, IRIN (May 14, 2007), http://www.irinnews.
org/report.aspx?reportid=72129; see also, Tens of thousands ﬂee northern
Kenya violence, AFP (Feb. 8, 2012), http://www.capitalfm.co.ke/news/2012/02/
43 See, e.g., U.S. AGENCY FOR INT’L DEV. (“USAID”), OFF. OF CONFLICT MG’T
& MITIGATION (CMM), CLIMATE CHANGE AND CONFLICT IN UGANDA: THE CATTLE
CORRIDOR AND KARAMOJA, CMM DISCUSSION PAPER NO. 3 (2011), http://www.
Uganda.pdf; Uganda: Climate Change and Conﬂicts, ALLAFRICA.COM (Feb.
23, 2009) (reporting on the “potent mix of the impact of climate change” in
the semi-arid Karamoja region in Northeastern Uganda — droughts, violent
conﬂicts and armed cattle raids), http://allafrica.com/stories/200902240702.
html ; see also, OLI BROWN & ALEC CRAWFORD, INT’L INST. FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEV., CLIMATE CHANGE AND SECURITY IN AFRICA: A STUDY FOR THE NORDIC-
AFRICAN FOREIGN MINISTERS MEETING (2009), http://www.iisd.org/pdf/2009/
44 See, e.g., Tanzania: Pastoralists Conﬂicts Threaten Peace and Stability,
ALLAFRICA.COM (June 18, 2011), http://allafrica.com/stories/201106220123.html.
45 See, e.g., 2,460 people affected by ﬂoods in Budalangi, RELIEF WEB
(Apr. 30, 2007), http://reliefweb.int/node/231950.
46 See, e.g., Adam Robertson, Colin Crowley, & Michael Tait, Kenya’s
Drought Crisis: Starving to Death, THE GUARDIAN (Oct. 28, 2009), http://
INTCMP=ILCNETTXT3487; see also, Xan Rice, Almost 4 million Kenyan on
food aid as drought deepens, THE GUARDIAN (Sept. 17, 2009), http://www.
47 See, e.g., ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT
[OECD], Development and Climate Change in Tanzania: Focus on Mount
Kilimanjaro, COM/ENV/EPOC/DCD/DAC(2003)5/FINAL (2003), http://www.
oecd.org/dataoecd/47/0/21058838.pdf; S. HASTENRATH, RECESSION OF EQUATORIAL
GLACIERS: A PHOTO DOCUMENTATION (2008); Andre Minarcek, Mount Kiliman-
jaro’s Glacier is Crumbling, NAT’L GEO. NEWS (Sept. 23, 2003), http://news.
html; Steve Connor, Climate change will melt snows of Kilimanjaro ‘within 20
years’, THE INDEP’T. (Nov. 3 2009), http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/
years-1813631.html; Climate Change Impacts in Tanzania, WWF GLOBAL
(noting that between 1962 and 2000, Mount Kilimanjaro lost about 55% of its
glaciers retreating), http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/aboutcc/problems/
rising_temperatures/hotspot_map/tanzania.cfm (last visited Feb. 7, 2012);
Glorious vision in Kenya’s sky melts away, L.A. TIMES (Nov. 10, 2009),
48 See, e.g., Uganda Climate Change Factsheet, supra note 38, at 3-4.
49 See Daniel Howden, The wildebeest river is running dry, THE INDEP’T.
(Aug. 10, 2009), http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/nature/
the-wildebeest-river-is-running-dry-1769959.html (reporting on the drying
up of the Mara River, a spectacular tourist attraction in Kenya’s Mara
Gama Reserve); Hassan Mjingo, In Tanzania, Climate Change, Wildlife
and People Are Tightly Linked, CLIMATE CHANGE MEDIA P’SHIP, (Dec.
9, 2011), http://www.climatemediapartnership.org/reporting/stories/
50 See, e.g., ABIY S. KEBEDE ET AL., IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND SEA LEVEL
RISE: A PRELIMINARY CASE STUDY OF MOMBASA, KENYA, TYNDALL CENTRE WORKING
PAPER 146 (2010), http://www.tyndall.ac.uk/sites/default/ﬁles/twp146.pdf; E.
Darling, T. McClanahan & I. Côté, Combined effects of two stressors on Kenyan