Civil Actions for Acts that Are Valid According to Religious Family Law but Harm Women's Rights: Legal Pluralism in Cases of Collision Between Two Sets of Laws

Author:Benjamin Shmueli
Position:Ph.D. 2005, L.L.M. 1999, L.L.B. 1998, Bar-Ilan University
SUMMARY

This Article analyzes the implications of legal pluralism when religious family law conflicts with state civil tort law. Refusal to grant a get (a Jewish divorce bill) in Jewish law, divorcing a wife against her will in Muslim Shari’a law, and bigamy and polygamy in Muslim Shari?’a law are practices permitted by personal-religious family law that harm human rights. This Article seeks to answer the... (see full summary)

 
FREE EXCERPT
!∀#∃
!∀#∀∃% &∋(∀)∗+% ,)−% &∋(+% (./(% &−0%
1/∃∀2% &∋∋)−2∀∗3% ()% 40∃∀3∀)5+%
6/7∀∃8% 9/:% ;5(% </−7% =)70∗>+%
4∀3.(+?% 903/∃% ≅∃5−/∃∀+7% ∀∗% !/+0+%
),% !)∃∃∀+∀)∗% Α0(:00∗% Β:)% Χ0(+% ),%
9/:+%
!∀#∃%&∋#()∗&+∀,∋
&ΑΧΒ4&!Β%
(−.(/012,(%#%,34.(1(&5,2%16#.(67(,8%,(5,+0%,.&(
9∗∀#( 0∀,∋8∋6+.( 7%&∋,3( ,%9( 26#7,∋21.( 9∋1∗( .1%1∀( 2∋:∋,( 1601( ,%9;(
<∀7+.%,( 16( 80%#1( %( %&∋( =%( >∀9∋.∗( ?∋:602∀( ≅∋,,Α( ∋#( >∀9∋.∗( ,%9Β(
?∋:602∋#8( %( 9∋7∀( %8%∋#.1( ∗∀0( 9∋,,( ∋#( Χ+.,∋&(()∗+,−∗(,%9Β(%#?(
≅∋8%&3( %#?( 56,38%&3( ∋#( Χ+.,∋&( ()∗+,−∗(,%9(%0(50%212.(
5∀0&∋11∀?( ≅3( 5∀0.6#%,∆0∀,∋8∋6+.( 7%&∋,3( ,%9( 1∗%1( ∗%0&( ∗+&%#(
0∋8∗1.;( −∗∋.( /01∋2,∀( .∀∀Ε.( 16( %#.9∀0( 1∗∀( Φ+∀.1∋6#( 9∗∀1∗∀0( 1601 (
,%9( .∗6+,?( 6:∀00+,∀( 7%&∋,3( ,%9Β( 9∋1∗( 1∗∀( 506:∋.6( 1∗%1( ∋1( ≅∀(
%55,∋∀?( .∀#.∋≅,3(9∗∀#( ?∀2∋?∋#8( 7%&∋,3( &%11∀0.Γ( 60( 9∗∀1∗∀0( 1∗∀(
196( ?∋.2∋5,∋#∀.( 67( ,%9( %0∀( 26&5,∀&∀#1%03Β( ∋#( 1∗∀( .∀#.∀( 1∗%1(
,∋≅∀0%,( 1601( ,%9( 26&5,∀1∀.( #6#,∋≅∀0%,( 0∀,∋8∋6+.( 7%&∋,3( ,%9( ≅3(
.+55,3∋#8( 0∀&∀?∋∀.( ∋#( 1∗∀( 760&( 67( ?%&%8∀.( 6#,3Β( 9∗∀0∀%.(
0∀,∋8∋6+.(7%&∋,3( ,%9(?∀1∀0&∋#∀.( ∀Η2,+.∋:∀,3(1∗∀( .1%1+.(=&%00∋∀?(
60(?∋:602∀?Α;(−∗∋.(/01∋2,∀(7+01∗∀0(∀Η%&∋#∀.(9∗∀1∗∀0(1601(,%9(%#?(
26#10%21(,%9( .∗6+,?( %21( ∋#?∀5∀#?∀#1,3( ∋#( 1∗∀( %0∀%( 67( ?%&%8∀.Β(
∀:∀#(∋7( 1∗∀( ∋#?∋0∀21( ≅+1( ∋#∀:∋1%≅,∀(6+126&∀(&%3(≅∀(%(2∗%#8∀(∋#(
&%0∋1%,(.1%1+.;(
(−(2%.(67(%(960,?9?(%0&7+,(50%212Β(#(92(10(.(
%( 1∀#.∋6#( =∀:∀#( 26,,∋.∋6#Α( ≅∀19∀∀#( 196( 7∋∀,?.( 67( ,%9Ι0∀,∋8∋6+.(
∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃
∃./)010223450506078884505090788!49+:;<∗=∃ >=,?&+≅,∋ΑΒ∃ Χ,≅,∋,=%∃ /+∆Ε&≅≅∆+4∃
1ΦΓ&∃ >=,?&+≅,∋Α∃ (Η)∆∆<∃ ∆Ε∃ 5∗Ι4∃ ∀22ϑΚ∀22Λ∃ ∗=Μ∃ ∀22ΛΚ∀22!∃ Ε∗<<∃ ≅&Ν&≅∋&+Β∃ Ο≅≅∆Η,∗∋&∃
/+∆Ε&≅≅∆+∃Π(&=,∆+∃ 5&Η∋Φ+&+Θ4∃∗=Μ∃1,+&Η∋∆+∃ ∆Ε∃∋)&∃Ρ&=∋&+∃Ε∆+∃Ρ∆ΝΝ&+Η,∗<∃5∗Ι4∃9∗+:;<∗=∃
>=,?&+≅,∋Α∃ 5∗Ι∃ (Η)∆∆<4∃ ;≅+∗&<0∃ Σ),≅∃ Ο+∋,Η<&∃ )∗≅∃ Τ&&=∃ Υ+&≅&=∋&Μ∃ ∗∋∃ ∗∃ Η∆=Ε&+&=Η&∃ ∆=∃
Ρ+,∋,Η∗<∃ ς&Ε<&Η∋,∆=≅∃ ∆=∃ 5&%∗<∃ /<Φ+∗<,≅Ν∃ ,=∃∋)&∃(∋∋&∃∗∃9&Α∆=Μ4∃Ω%∆∆Μ&∃Ξ∗<<∃5∗Ι
(Η)∆∆<4∃Ψ∆+Γ∃ >=,?&+≅,∋Α4∃Σ∆+∆=∋∆4∃Ρ∗=∗Μ∗∃ Ζ∃9∗+∃;<∗=∃ >=,?&+≅,∋Α∃[∗ΗΦ<∋Α∃∆Ε∃5∗Ι4∃ 9∗+∃
;<∗=∃ >=,?&+≅,∋Α4∃ ∴Φ<Α∃ 74∃ ∀27∀0∃ ;∃ Ι∗=∋∃ ∋∆∃ ∋)∗=Γ∃ ∋)&∃ Υ∗+∋,Η,Υ∗=∋≅∃ ∆Ε∃ ∋)&∃ Η∆=Ε&+&=Η&∃ Ε∆+∃
?∗<Φ∗Τ<&∃Η∆ΝΝ&=∋≅Β∃ Ω+,∃Ο+∆=≅∆=4∃6,Η)∗&<∃9+∆ΑΜ&4∃ ∗=Μ∃Ω+&=∃/&+&]∃Ε∆+∃?∗<Φ∗Τ<&∃∗Μ?,Η&Β∃
⊥Μ&=∃Ρ∆)&=4∃ 6,Η)∗&<∃_∆+∗<4∃;≅+∗&<∃ <&,=4∃⊥<∗Μ∃6∆+%&=≅∋&+=4∃ ∗=Μ∃Ψ∆=∗∋∗=∃Ψ&)∆≅&Ε∃ Ε∆+∃
&αΗ&<<&=∋∃+&≅&∗+Η)∃∗≅≅,≅∋∗=Η&Β∃Ψ∗,+∃()ΝΦ&<,∃Ε∆+∃∋&Η)=,Η∗<∃∗≅≅,≅∋∗=Η&Β∃∗=Μ∃∋)&∃≅∋∗ΕΕ∃∆Ε∃∋)&∃
ϑ%#?∀0≅∋,1(>6+0#%,(67(−0%#.#%1∋6#%,(Κ%9(Ε∆+∃∋)&,+∃&Μ,∋∆+,∗<∃Ι∆+Γ0∃
824 vanderbilt journal of transnational law [vol. 46:823
7%&∋,3( ,%9( %#?( 2∋:∋,( 1601( %#?( 26#10%21( ,%9Ι∋.( 6#∀( 67( ,∀8%,(
5,+0%,∋.&Β( 9∗∋2∗( &%Ε∀.( ∋1( 56..∋≅,∀( 760( 1∗∀( 196( .3.1∀&.( 67( ,%9(
%#?( 26+01.( 16(26∀Η∋.1;( !+1( .∗6+,?( ,∀8%,( 5,+0%,∋.&( 26#10∋≅+1∀( 16(
1∗∀(20∀%1∋6#(67(%( &60∀(,∋≅∀0%,(.62∋∀13(≅3(%.Ε∋#8(1∗%1( 1∗∀(&∀..%8∀(
67( ,∋≅∀0%,( 1601( ,%9( ≅∀( ∀&≅0%2∀?Λ( Μ0( .∗6+,?( ,∀8%,( 5,+0%,∋.&(
506&61∀( %( 26&506&∋.∀( .6,+1∋6#( %#?( .∀∀Ε( %( &∋??,∀( 806+#?( ∋#(
60?∀0(16( &∋#∋&∋4∀(1∗∀( 26#7,∋21(≅∀19∀∀#( 1∗∀(26#10%?∋21603( :∋∀9.Λ(
−∗∋.( /01∋2,∀( %??0∀..∀.( 1∗∀.∀( Φ+∀.1∋6#.Β( 50∀.∀#1.( 1∗∀( 50∀:%∋,∋#8(
.6,+1∋6#.(≅∀∋#8( 677∀0∀?(∋#( 1∗∀(,∋1∀0%1+0∀Β( %#?(.+88∀.1.( %(+#∋Φ+∀(
∋#1∀0&∀?∋%1∀( &+,1∋7%2∀1∀?( .6,+1∋6#;( Ν#( ?6∋#8( .6Β( ∋1( .∀∀Ε.( 16(
≅∀26&∀( 1∗∀( 7∋0.1( ∋#( %#( ∀Η1∀#.∋:∀( ,∋1∀0%1+0∀( 6#( ,∀8%,( 5,+0%,∋.&Β(
.+88∀.1∋#8( .6,+1∋6#.( =60( %1( ,∀%.1( 5,%1760&.( 760( .6,+1∋6#.Α( 16(
26,,∋.∋6#.Β( 0%1∗∀0( 1∗%#( &∀0∀,3( 506:∋?∋#8( ?∀.20∋51∋6#.( 67( 1∗∀&Β(
%#?(1∗+.(∗∀,5∋#8( 16(∀%.∀(1∗∀(1∀#.∋6#( ≅∀19∀∀#(?∋77∀0∀#1(,%9.(%#?(
26+01.(∋#(1∗∀(.%&∀(.1%1∀;((
Β&Α9Ε%Φ6%!ΦΓΒΕΓΒΧ%
∃;0∃ ;βΣςΩ1>ΡΣ;Ωβ∃0 000000000000000000 000000000000000000 0000000000000000000 000000∃∃ !∀3!
∃ ;;0∃1Ο6Ο_⊥(∃;β∃ΣΩςΣ∃5Οχ∃[Ως∃ΟΡΣ(∃ΣΞΟΣ∃Ος⊥∃ΧΟ5;1∃
;β∃ς⊥5;_;Ω>(∃[Ο6;5Ψ∃5ΟχδΟΡΟ(⊥∃Ω[∃5⊥_Ο5∃
/5>ςΟ5;(6∃000 0000 00000 0000 00000 00000 0000 00000 0000 00000 0000 00000 00000 0000 00000 0∃∃ !∀8!
∃ ;;;0∃1;ΧΩςΡ;β_∃Ο∃χ;[⊥∃Ο_Ο;β(Σ∃Ξ⊥ς∃χ;55∃Οβ1∃
9;_Ο6Ψ∃Ως∃∃/Ω5Ψ_Ο6Ψ∃>β1⊥ς∃)Ο/<ΝΠ/5Οχ∃0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ∃∃ ! # Λ !
Ο0∃∃ Θ∋:602∋#8(%(Ρ∋7∀(/8%∋#.1(Ο∀0(Ρ∋,,((
( %#?(!∋8%&3(60(Σ6,38%&3∃00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0∃∃ ! !
90∃∃ Θ6∀.(−601(Κ%9(Τ6&5,∀&∀#1(<∀,∋8∋6+.((
%&,3(Κ%9Λ(Κ8%,(Σ,+0%,.&(%.((
(%(Τ6&506&.∃0000 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 000000 00000 00000 00000 000∃∃ !#8!
∃;Χ0∃ς⊥[>(Ο5∃ΣΩ∃_ςΟβΣ∃Ο∃ςΩ−Π∴⊥χ;(Ξ∃1;ΧΩςΡ⊥∃9;55Θ
;β∃⊥χ;(Ξ∃5Οχ∃00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ∃∃ ! ε # !
Ο0∃∃ <∀7+.%,(16(ς0%#1(%(_&∋∃000000000000000000000000000000000000000∃∃ !ε#!
90∃∃ −∗∀(Ο∋8∗(Τ6.1(67(%(Σ6..∋≅,∀(Τ6,,∋.∋6#Ξ((
(−601(Κ%9(Τ02+&:#1.(<,86+.(Υ%&,3((
%9(%#?(0.(16(Τ%#8(Χ%01%,()1%1+.∃0000 00000 ∃ !ε Λ!
Ρ0∃∃ −∗∀(Μ51∋6#.(Μ77∀0∀?(≅3(Κ∀8%,(Σ,+0%,∋.&((
(∋#(Τ%.(67(Τ6,,.6#(!19#(96()1.((
(67(Κ%9.∃000 000 0000 000 0000 0000 000 0000 0000 000 0000 0000 000 0000 0000 000 0000 000∃∃ !3 !!
70!Σ∆+∋∃5∗Ι∃()∆Φ<Μ∃(∋&Υ∃Ο≅,Μ&∃000000000000000000000000∃∃ !38!
∀0!Σ∆+∋∃5∗Ι∃()∆Φ<Μ∃Ρ∗<<∃Ε∆+∃∗∃Ρ)∗=%&∃∃
∃,=ς&<,%,Φ5Ι4ΤΦβ6+&000000000000000000∃ !ϑ!
#0!Ρ,?,<∃5∗Ι∃()∆Φ<Μ∃1,≅+&%∗+Μ∃∋)&∃Ρ∆<<,≅,∆=∃00∃∃ !ϑ∀!
Π∗Θ!Σ∆+∋∃5∗Ι∃;≅∃;ΝΥ<&Ν&=∋&Μ∃(Ι&&Υ,=%<Α∃0∃∃ !ϑ#!
ΠΤΘ!Ρ∆=∋+∗Η∋∃5∗Ι∃;≅∃;ΝΥ<&Ν&=∋&Μ∃
(Ι&&Υ,=%<Α∃000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000∃∃ !ϑε!
2013] Civil Actions for Acts that Are Valid 825
ΠΗΘ!Ρ,?,<∃ς&Ν&Μ,&≅∃()∆Φ<Μ∃β∆∋∃9&∃
_+∗=∋&Μ∃>=<&≅≅∃Ο<<∃9∗++,&+≅∃∋∆∃∋)&∃
ς&Ν∗++,∗%&∃Ο+&∃ς&Ν∆?&Μδ∃Σ)&∃φς∀1
5∗Ιγ∃ ∃000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000∃!Λ#!
ε0!Σ∆+∋∃5∗Ι∃∋∆∃9&∃ηΦ∗<,Ε,&Μ∃⊥α∃Ο=∋&∃00000000000000∃∃ !!#!
30!Ο∃(Υ&Η,∗<∃∴∆,=∋∃Ρ∆ΝΝ,∋∋&&∃Ε∆+∃∃
∃ςΤΤ,=,Η<ΡΦ+=Μ[Ν,<ΑΡΦ+
∃()Φ<Μ9&Ρ+&&Μ1&<Ι,)
∃Ρ&ΕΡ<<,,=00000000000000000000000000000000000000000∃ !!ε!
ϑ0!/+∆Υ∆≅&Μ∃6Φ<∋,Ε∗Η&∋&Μ∃(∆<Φ∋,∆=δ∃∃
∃Σ+5Ι()Φ<Μ9&;ΝΥ<&Ν&=&Μ
∃,=(&=,,?&∃6∗==&+∃0000000000000000000000000000000000∃∃ !!ϑ!
Π∗Θ!Ο∃Ξ,%):5&?&<∃Χ,&Ιδ∃ς∀1∃ς&ΕΦ≅∗<∃∆Ε∃∃
Ο=Α∃,=Μ∃;≅∃∗∃Σ∆+∋4∃∗=Μ∃1∗Ν∗%&≅∃
()∆Φ<Μ∃9&∃ΟΙ∗+Μ&Μ∃ΟΗΗ∆+Μ,=%∃∃
∋∆∃∋)&∃1&∃[∗Η∋∆∃/+∆?&=∃Ξ∗+Ν∃∋∆∃∃
χ,?&≅∃∆+∃ΞΦ≅Τ∗=Μ≅∃00000000000000000000000000000000∃∃ !!!!
ΠΤΘ!β∆∋∃ΟΙ∗+Μ,=%∃[Φ∋Φ+&∃1∗Ν∗%&≅∃00000000000∃∃ !87!
ΠΗΘ!Σ∆+∋∃ΟΗ∋,∆=≅∃,=∃Ρ∗≅&≅∃,=∃χ),Η)∃∋)&∃
ς∗ΤΤ,=,Η∗<∃Ρ∆Φ+∋∃Ξ∗≅∃β∆∋∃ΠΨ&∋Θ∃;≅≅Φ&Μ∃∃
∗∃1&Η+&&∃∋∆∃1,?∆+Η&∃00000000000000000000000000000000∃∃ !87!
ΠΜΘ!Σ∆+∋∃ΟΗ∋,∆=≅∃∋)∗∋∃Ρ∗=∃6&&∋∃∋)&∃
Ρ∆=Μ,∋,∆=≅∃∆Ε∃∴&Ι,≅)∃5∗Ι∃ΟΗΗ∆+Μ,=%∃∃
∋∆∃ς∆==,&∃χ∗+ΤΦ+%−≅∃ΟΥΥ+∆∗Η)∃0000000000000∃∃ !8#!
Π&Θ!Ο<∋&+=∗∋,?&∃Σ∆+∋≅∃00000000000000000000000000000000000∃∃ !8ε!
∃Χ0∃ΡΩβΡ5>(;Ωβ∃0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ∃∃ ! 8 3 !
;0;βΣςΩ1>ΡΣ;Ωβ
Σ)&∃ Υ+&≅&=∋∃≅∋ΦΜΑ∃ ∗,Ν≅∃ ∋∆∃ ∗=∗<Α]&∃ ∋∆+∋∃ ∗=Μ∃ Η∆=∋+∗Η∋∃ ∗Η∋,∆=≅∃ Ε∆+∃
∗Η∋≅∃∋)∗∋∃ ∗+&∃?∗<,Μ∃ ∗ΗΗ∆+Μ,=%∃∋∆∃ +&<,%,∆Φ≅:Υ&+≅∆=∗<∃Ε∗Ν,<Α∃ <∗Ι4∃ΤΦ∋∃ ∗∋∃
∋)&∃≅∗Ν&∃∋,Ν&∃ ≅&+,∆Φ≅<Α∃)∗+Ν∃Ι∆Ν&=−≅∃ +,%)∋≅0∃Σ),≅∃,≅∃∗∃ Η∗≅&∃≅∋ΦΜΑ∃∆Ε∃
∋)&∃,ΝΥ<,Η∗∋,∆=≅∃∆Ε∃<&%∗<∃Υ<Φ+∗<,≅Ν∃Ι)&=∃+&<,%,∆Φ≅∃ Ε∗Ν,<Α∃<∗Ι∃Η∆=Ε<,Η∋≅∃
Ι,∋)∃≅∋∗∋&∃Η,?,<∃∋∆+∋∃<∗Ι0∃
∃Σ)&ΥΥ<,Η,=Ε+&<,%,Φ=+ΝΤΑ<&%<Α&ΝΕ)&&,
Μ&&Υ<Α∃Υ+∆Τ<&Ν∗∋,Η∃ ,=∃≅∆Ν&∃ Η∆Φ=∋+,&≅∃∋)∗∋∃ )∗?&∃+&∋∗,=&Μ∃Η∆<∆=,∗<:&+∗∃
Υ+∗Η∋,Η&≅∃Τ&Η∗Φ≅&∃∋)&Α∃∗ΥΥ<Α∃∆=<Α∃∗∃Υ∆+∋,∆=∃∆Ε∃+&<,%,∆Φ≅∃<∗Ιι+&<,%,∆Φ≅∃
Ε∗Ν,<Α∃<∗Ι4∃Ι),Η)∃Μ∆&≅∃ =∆∋∃≅ΦΥΥ∆+∋∃ΕΦ=Μ∗Ν&=∋∗<∃)ΦΝ∗=∃+,%)∋≅∃,=∃ ∋)&∃
≅∗Ν&∃Ι∗Α∃∗≅∃<,Τ&+∗<∃<∗Ι≅∃Μ∆0Η∃ς&ΕΦ≅∗<∃∋∆∃%+∗=∋∃∗∃8∀1(Π∗∃∴&Ι,≅)∃Μ,?∆+Η&∃
∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃∃
∃70)∀∀∃ΟΜ∗Ν∃(0∃Ξ∆Ε+,:χ,=∆%+∗Μ∆Ι4∃/(Σ,+0%,∋13(67(Θ∋.26#1∀#1Ξ(Κ∀8%,(Σ,+0%,∋.&Β(
<∀,∋8∋6+.( /?∃+?∋2%1∋6#(%#?( 1∗∀( )1%1∀4∃ ∀ϑ∴050Ζς⊥5;_0∃ 3Λ4∃ 3!Κ384∃ ϑ∀4∃ !2Κ!∀∃ Π∀272Θ∃
ΠΜ&≅Η+,Τ,=%∃ ∋)&∃ ∗ΥΥ<,Η∗∋,∆=∃ ∆Ε∃ +&<,%,∆Φ≅∃=∃Η=Ε<,Η,=%∃Ι,)∃<&%∗<∃∆+Μ&Β.∀∀(%,.6
ΟΑ&<&∋∃ 9<&Η)&+:/+,%∗∋∃ Ζ∃ 9&=ϕ∗Ν,=∃ ()ΝΦ&<,4∃ −∗∀( Ν#1∀05,%3( !∀19∀∀#( −601( Κ%9( %#?(

To continue reading

FREE SIGN UP