• The Journal of Gender, Race & Justice


Our conception of justice looks beyond legal rights to how fairness, equity and respect delineate the boundaries of what legal justice must, at a minimum, entail. We include all struggles against oppression within this conception. We seek to invoke a vision of justice that is without fear, a vision that allows us to be who we are as we are, without sanction or penalty. We encourage personal and social responsibility towards achieving this vision, and we welcome all viewpoints and ideas that are expressed with respect and collegiality.

Latest documents

  • Keeping It Real: Developing A Culturally And Personally Relevant Legal Writing Curriculum

    I. A Culturally And Personally Relevant Curriculum Explained A. Cultural Relevance B. Personal Relevance C. Other Considerations: Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences II. Importance Of Relevant Curriculum A. Improving the Students´ Academic Success B. Enhancing the Relationship Between the Educator and the Student C. Empowering Learners D. Providing Equal Learning Opportunities E. Preparing for Practice in a Multi-Ethnic and Pluralistic Society III. The Goals Of A Relevant Curriculum A. Improve Students´ Academic Success Through Coursework that Emphasizes the Human Purpose of What Is Being Learned and its Relationship to the Students´ Personal Experiences B. Create the Most Conducive Learning Environment for Students Through Trusting RelationshipsC. Create an Environment that Empowers Students D. Give Students an Equal Opportunity to Learn E. Prepare Students for Practice IV. Developing Relevant Curricula For Law Schools A. Professional Collaboration in Developing a Relevant Curriculum B. Collaboration with Students in Developing a Relevant Curriculum V. Developing A Relevant Legal Writing Curriculum At Sulc A. Discovering What Was Relevant to SULC Students B. Developing Culturally Relevant Materials C. Developing Personally Relevant Materials D. Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences E. Autonomy Support VI. Developing Relevant Curricula At Other Schools VII. Conclusion Appendix A - Sample Student Questionnaire

  • Of Policies, Procedures, and Packing Sheds: Agricultural Incidents of Employer Abuse of the H-2B Nonagricultural Guestworker Visa

    I. Introduction II. The Regulatory And Statutory Background Of The H-2B And H-2A Temporary Worker Visas A. The Labor Certification Process for H-2A and H-2B Visa Applications 1. The H-2A Labor Certification Procedures: 20 C.F.R. § 655, Subpart B 2. The H-2B Labor Certification Procedures: 20 C.F.R. § 655, Subparts A & C a. The General H-2B Labor Certification Process: Subpart A b. The H-2B Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment: Subpart C B. Department of Labor´s Proposed Employer Attestation Procedures for H-2B Workers Would Replace Labor Certification: Proposed 20 C.F.R. § 655, Subpart A C. USCIS Proposed H-2B Visa Procedures D. New Guestworker Proposals and Recent Legislation E. Description of the Problem: Labor Certification Abuse in General and in Agriculture Specifically F. Applicable Principles of Administrative Law: Judicial Review of Agency Interpretations G. H-2B Cases: Martinez, Daylily Farms, Dattner Architects, and Sterling Onions III. Legal And Policy Arguments In Favor Of More Protective H-2B Labor Certification Procedures A. Legal Arguments for More Protective H-2B Labor Certification Procedures 1. Regulatory Interpretation: H-2B "[P]olicies" in Subpart A Means H-2A "Procedures" in Subpart B 2. Statutory and Regulatory Interpretation: H-2A "Agricultural Labor" Should Include More H-2B Workers B. Policy Arguments for More Protective H-2B Procedures 1. Employers Should Be Deterred from Hiring Temporary Foreign Workers Because Low-Skilled U.S. Labor Shortages Are a Myth 2. The DOL and USCIS Should Abandon the Proposed H-2B Employer Attestations Because Labor Certification Better Protects U.S. and Foreign Workers IV. Solutions: Legal Reform And Labor Solidarity A. H-2B Labor Certifications Should Follow Improved H-2A Procedures B. The U.S. Labor Movement Must Unite Workers Regardless of Immigration or Citizenship Status V. Conclusion

  • Labor as Property: Guestworkers, International Trade, and the Democracy Deficit

    I. Introduction II. Commodification, Globalization, And The Democracy Deficit A. Commodification of Labor in Historical Context B. Globalization Heightens the Commodification of Labor C. The Democracy Deficit: Workers Lacking Voice in Politics and at Work III. A Muffled Voice For Guestworkers A. Historical Lessons: The Problems of the Braceros B. H-2A, H-1B, and H-2B Workers C. Objections to Expanded Guestworker Programs 1. Policy and Political Objections 2. The Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments: Consent and Full Personhood 3. Democracy Deficit Problems with Guestworker Programs . International Labor Rights: The (Missing) Connection between ILO Principles and Guestworker Programs IV. Giving Voice To Guestworkers A. Recent Guestworker Proposals B. The Problem of Enforcement: The Hoffman StoryC. Alternate Models to Give Guestworkers Greater Voice at their Workplaces V. Conclusion

  • Opportunistic Hate Crimes Targeting Symbolic Property: When Free Speech Is Not Free

    I. Introduction II. Background A. An Overview of Hate CrimesB. Legislative Responses to Bias-Motivated Crimes C. The Constitutional IssuesIII. Analysis A. Integrating Opportunistic Hate Crimes into Current Legislation B. Applying the Principle of Felony Murder to Opportunistic Hate Crimes C. The Proposed Approach Is Consistent with Current Hate Crime Legislation D. The Proposal Is Constitutional Because it Prohibits Speech That Is Not Protected Under the First Amendment E. The Constitutional Calculus Approach IV. Conclusion

  • Immigration, Race, and Economic Globalization on the U.S.-Mexico Border: Tangled Histories and Contemporary Realities

    I. Race, Economic Globalization, And Identity In The United States: A Historical PerspectiveA. Race and Political Order B. Economic Expansion and the Construction of National Identity C. New Markets, New RacesII. United States Trade And Immigration Policy: The Never-Ending Tension A. Mexican Immigrants and the Politics of ImmigrationB. Foreign Investment, Free Trade, and Migration III. Immigration And Social Networks A. Immigrant Networks and Labor MarketsB. Immigrant Networks and Global Production C. Globalization and Immigrant Labor: The Case of the Apparel Industry V. The "Hispanic Challenge:" Multiculturalism, Globalization, And Contemporary Racial OrderVI. Conclusion

  • Out of the Frying Pan and into the Quarantine: Why 8 U.S.C. § 1182 s HIV-AIDS Exclusion Should Not Apply to Refugees Seeking Entry into the United States

    I. Introduction II. Background A. A Short History of 8 U.S.C. § 1182 B. The 1993 Haitian Refugee Crisis and the Subsequent AIDS Quarantine at Guantanamo Bay III. Legal Analysis Of § 1182 A. The HIV Exclusion Violates Public Policy B. The HIV Ban Does Not Stem the Spread of AIDS 1. HIV Testing Increases Health Risks Because of Inherent Flaws in the Testing Procedures a. HIV Test Results are Plagued by False-Positives b. HIV Testing Yields False-Negatives. c. Mandatory Testing Instills a False Sense of Security. 2. The Threat of Deportation or Repatriation Under § 1182 Drives Many HIV-Positive Aliens Underground, thus Heightening this Risk of Exposure. 3. Trading Mandatory Testing for Counseling and Public Health Education, which are the Most Effective Tools in the Fight Against AIDS. C. Excluding HIV- Positive Refugees Damages U.S.Human Rights Credibility and Leads to Copycat Legislation Internationally D. The HIV Ban, as Applied to Refugees, Violates International Human Rights Norms 1. § 1182, as Applied to Refugees, Violates the Internationally Customary Norm of Nonrefoulment. 
 2. Detaining HIV-Positive Refugees Under § 1182 Deprives Them of Their Fundamental Right to Adequate Health Care 
 3. Indirect Human Rights Violations IV. Policy Recommendation: Immunize Political Refugees From The Exclusionary Effect Of § 1182 And Institute A Comprehensive Hiv/Aids Counseling/Education Program For All Legal Immigrants V. Conclusion

  • Markets, Subsidies, Regulation, and Trust: Building Ethical Understandings into the Market for Fertility Services

    I. Introduction II. The Market For Fertility Services III. The Intersections Of Markets And Ethics A. Jurisdiction Shopping: Prohibition and the Creation of Black MarketB. Jurisdiction Shopping: The Race to the Bottom 1. Jurisdiction Shopping: Corporate Location and Gamete Supply 2. Jurisdiction Shopping: Individual Consumers and International Demand 3. Classic Jurisdiction Shopping: Competition for Price and Quality C. Regulation: Subsidization and Demand-Side Changes D. Regulation and Trust III. What Is Happening In Australia? IV. The Model Assisted Reproductive Technology ACT: Application Of Research

  • A Lesbian Centered Critique of Genetic Parenthood.

    I. Introduction II. Lesbian Legal Theory III. The Critique Of Biology IV. Changing Technology And Changing Social Patterns Have Created Opportunities For Change A. Reproductive Technologies B. Genetic Mapping and Screening C. The Changing Social and Legal Scene V. Conclusion

  • The Return of Lochnerizing: The Iowa Supreme Court´s Invalidation of Gambling Taxes

    I. Introduction II. Background III. The Tax Rate Must Be Considered Under The Federal Equal Protection Clause A. The U.S. Supreme Court´s Finding Under the Federal Equal Protection Clause B. The Iowa Supreme Court´s Application of the State Equal Protection Clause IV. Interaction Of The Rational Basis Test And Iowa´s Tax Classifications A. The Proper Application of Rational Basis B. The Reasonableness of Tax Classifications V. Plausible Policy Reasons For The Differential Tax Rates A. Racetracks and Riverboats Are Not Similarly Situated B. Legitimate State Interests C. Differential Tax Rates Based on Geography VI. The Return Of Lochnerizing In The Iowa Supreme Court A. The History of Lochnerizing B. Lochnerizing and the Iowa Supreme Court Decision VII. Impact Of The Iowa Supreme Court´s Decision A. Action Taken by the Iowa Legislature B. Grounds for Future Equal Protection Challenges to Tax Statutes VIII. Conclusion

  • Protecting the President from Protest: Using the Secret Service s Zone of Protection to Prosecute Protesters

    I. Introduction . II. Presidential Security And The Origin Of § 1752. A. The Legislative History of § 1752. B. The Role of the Secret Service in Presidential Protection . 1. Securing President Bush´s October 2002 Visit to Columbia, South Carolina . 2. Restricted Areas and the Secret Service´s Policy on Free Speech . III. Public Forum Doctrine Overview. IV. Designated Public Forum Analysis. A. An Intersection Is Usually a Traditional Public Forum . B. The Restricted Area Was a Designated Public Forum . 1. Intent to Open the Intersection to Speech. 2. Restricted Areas Are Not Traditionally Open to Speech. 3. The Compatability of the Restricted Area with Speech . C. Rules Applicable to Designated Public Forums . 1. Content Neutrality. 2. Strict Scrutiny Review Appropriate . 3. Time, Place, and Manner Restrictions Subject to Intermediate Scrutiny . V. Nonpublic Forum Analysis . VI. Conclusion .

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