World Medical & Health Policy
- Publication date:
- Nbr. 11-3, September 2019
- Nbr. 11-2, June 2019
- Nbr. 11-1, March 2019
- Nbr. 10-4, December 2018
- Nbr. 10-3, September 2018
- Nbr. 10-2, June 2018
- Nbr. 10-1, March 2018
- Nbr. 9-4, December 2017
- Nbr. 9-3, September 2017
- Nbr. 9-2, June 2017
- Nbr. 9-1, March 2017
- Nbr. 8-4, December 2016
- Nbr. 8-3, September 2016
- Nbr. 8-2, June 2016
- Nbr. 8-1, March 2016
- Nbr. 4-2, July 2012
- Nbr. 4-1, April 2012
- Nbr. 3-4, December 2011
- Nbr. 3-3, September 2011
- Nbr. 3-2, June 2011
- Positively Influencing Policy Prescriptions
- Can Adoption of Cuban Maternity Care Policy Guide the Rural United States to Improve Maternal and Infant Mortality?
In the rural United States the infant mortality rate (IMR) is 6.5 per 1,000, and in rural states like Alabama this rate jumps to 9.1. Rural obstetric services are disappearing such that over half of U.S. rural counties do not have enough obstetric services. In contrast, Cuba's IMR is 4.3 while spending half as much as a percent of their gross domestic product than the United States. This raises the question: how has Cuba achieved this health outcome and what lessons can be learned and applied in the United States given decreased availability of obstetric services? This paper presents a field case study of one of Cuba's national public health policies. Specifically, we explore Cuba's Hogares Maternos, or maternity homes. We argue that the Cuban model, which focuses on social determinants of health, ought to be explored. We discuss how Hogares Maternos may be adopted and adapted within the rural United States by leveraging existing infrastructure.
- Modeling the Effect of Income Segregation on Communicable Disease Transmission
Income segregation has been on the rise in developing countries, where many communicable diseases are still prevalent. This study investigates how income segregation affects communicable disease transmission through the development of a novel model that includes income segregation and individuals’ health‐seeking behavior. The general model proposed here assumes that health of an individual is affected by (i) the health‐seeking behavior of individuals (e.g., going to the hospital, taking medicine); (ii) the communal health stock; and (iii) exposure to the communal health stock. The communal health stock is comprised of the amenities that make people healthier in a given community (e.g., the number of health‐care facilities). Income segregation is defined here as a combination of income inequality and residential segregation, which exists when some people have higher exposure to the communal health stock than other people. In this model, income segregation exists when poor people disproportionately live in neighborhoods with lower exposure to the communal health stock than rich people. A decrease in income segregation means the income of the poor increases along with their exposure to the communal health stock. The general model applied here predicts that an increase in the poor's income will increase their health by enabling them to afford more health‐seeking behavior and finds that higher exposure to the communal health stock directly increases the health of the poor. Higher exposure to the communal health stock, however, is found to decrease the poor's health‐seeking behavior, which reduces their health. The general model finds, therefore, that a decrease in income segregation will have an ambiguous effect on the health of individuals and the overall community. Probing further, the analysis replaces the general model with a more specific model, which predicts that overall, a decrease in income segregation increases individual health. Furthermore, in the more specific model, it is possible that the poor get stuck in a low‐health equilibrium while the rich stay in a high‐health equilibrium.
- Messaging and Advocacy in U.S. Tobacco Control Policy, 2009–19
Social science and public health researchers have spent decades investigating the effectiveness of various interventions designed to lower smoking rates and educate the U.S. public about the damages of tobacco consumption. This manuscript addresses two deficiencies in the existing literature. First, it examines important changes in tobacco control policy since the passage of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the most significant antismoking legislation in decades. Second, it analyzes the ways in which governmental and nongovernmental anti‐tobacco advocates have framed their arguments. Using a seminal article by Donley Studlar (2008) as its point of departure, this paper employs data from annual reports, press releases, and advertising campaigns to explore the similarities and differences in the antismoking strategies and messaging of two government agencies (the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and two advocacy groups (the Truth Initiative and the Campaign for Tobacco‐Free Kids) from 2009 to 2019. The analysis reveals an ongoing tension between themes of industry denormalization (which generates arguments grounded in morality) and harm reduction (which generates a more regulatory approach to policymaking) in modern tobacco control policy.
- A Tale of Two Programs: Access to High Quality Providers for Medicare Advantage and Affordable Care Act Beneficiaries in New York State
Medicare Advantage and the Affordable Care Act's insurance marketplaces provide coverage to millions of beneficiaries. This paper assesses network design and access to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI or angioplasty with stent) in New York for both programs. A specific focus is on access to higher quality providers. The findings indicate that both programs significantly restricted access and choice as compared to an unconstrained network. However, network design only rarely created areas devoid of any providers. In terms of access to quality, both programs tended to have slightly worse mean and median quality ratings than the overall physician supply. Findings with regard to access to above‐average providers were mixed. With respect to access to the highest quality providers, both ACA and Medicare Advantage plans generally fared slightly worse than unrestricted networks. In micropolitan and rural areas, access issues became apparent. Network regulation may do little to address these concerns. However, adding non‐emergency medical transportation benefits to insurance coverage may prove to be desirable going forward.
- Issue Information
- Variations in HCBS Spending, Use, and Hospitalizations among Medicaid 1915(c) Waiver Enrollees
Medicaid home‐ and community‐based services (HCBS) waiver programs serve a population at high risk for hospitalization. We examined whether enrollees in HCBS programs, in 21 states representing all regions of the United States, with higher intensity of services, measured by HCBS spending per enrollee, have lower rates of hospitalization and potentially avoidable hospitalization (PAH). We found no statistically significant association with hospitalization. This suggests that HCBS programs that provide higher intensity services are not focusing effort on reducing hospitalization. We also found that HCBS waiver enrollees in programs with greater generosity in eligibility, measured by a higher proportion of HCBS receipt among long‐term services and supports (LTSS) users, had statistically significantly lower rates of hospitalization and PAH. This suggests that more generous programs serve waiver enrollees who are at lower risk of hospitalization, which may be relevant to policymakers in establishing the eligibility criteria.
- Reducing Harm Through Evidence‐Based Alcohol Policies: Challenges and Options
This article examines challenges in implementing and sustaining effective alcohol policies and proposes several strategies to counter them. A narrative review was undertaken of recent publications that document challenges in implementing alcohol policies in various contexts. MEDLINE/PubMed were searched for publications in English between 2011 and 2018. Twenty‐five keywords and 25 scholar names were used in the search. From 1,169 hits, 168 full research papers and commentaries were examined. Eight main groups of challenges were identified: interventions of inadequate dose, support, scope, or fidelity; confounding impacts from alcohol industries and other sectors; uneven implementation or inadequate enforcement; popular policies are largely ineffective and effective policies unpopular; policy decision‐making focusing on short‐range perspectives and skewed to favor commercial interests; low awareness of alcohol as a health risk; challenges in getting information on relevant interventions, local data, and insider information; and insufficient capacity or training to implement a policy. Several strategies are offered to counter these challenges: provide evidence to policymakers: conduct assessment and pilot studies; provide enhanced training on alcohol issues and policy implementation; develop allies; promote strong leadership; use media advocacy; engage voices of those impacted by flawed policies; and promote a comprehensive approach.
- Health Concerns and Access to Services: Female Sex Workers’ Experiences in Mumbai, India
Female sex workers (FSWs) in India experience unmet health‐care needs due to numerous barriers to care. The objectives of this study were to (i) explore the health concerns among FSWs in Kamathipura, a red‐light district of Mumbai, India; and (ii) understand their experiences using health‐related services and resources. This qualitative study used in‐depth, semi‐structured individual interviews with 15 FSWs recruited using snowball sampling. Data analysis consisted of reading transcriptions line by line, identifying themes, and coding categories. A matrix of health concerns and identified resources were created to examine relationships. Participants identified numerous health concerns. Six thematic categories emerged, encompassing all health concern codes: communicable disease, nutrition, substance abuse, reproductive health, mental health, and physical violence. Participants reported varying levels of availability of health services; additionally, their basic health needs exceeded resource availability. FSWs have vital health concerns that go untreated. Current health care and social service funding and interventions are insufficient to meet the needs. Health‐care services must be expanded across all identified health categories and FSWs informed of their existence. Furthermore, prevention and intervention programs, with support from both nonprofits and government, must be prioritized to address the basic food and safety needs of FSWs.
- An Evaluation Tool for National‐Level Pandemic Influenza Planning
The historical threat of pandemic influenza and the circulation of novel influenza viruses have led countries to strengthen their efforts in pandemic influenza preparedness planning. A cornerstone of these efforts is the creation of a comprehensive national plan that addresses all of the capacities required to prevent, detect, and respond to novel influenza outbreaks. In 2017 and 2018, the World Health Organization issued updated guidance for national pandemic planning efforts, based on lessons learned from the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) outbreak, the International Health Regulations (World Health Organization, 2005a), and other developments in health security. We have created a tool to assess national‐level plans based on these updated guidelines. This tool will allow for countries to identify both strengths and weaknesses in their national plans, identify capacities and sectors that require improvement, and to help frame the updating or drafting of plans in line with the most updated guidance.
- Safer Cyberspace Through Legal Intervention: A Comparative Review of Cyberbullying Legislation
Cyberbullying is a problem that has increased significantly in incidence and severity over the recent past. The harmful consequences of cyberbullying have been well documented, including associations with severe psychological suffering, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Cyberbullying is...
- Public Health and Corporate Avoidance of U.S. Federal Income Tax
The amount of U.S. federal revenue affects the government's ability to provide public health services, programs, infrastructure, and research to adequately protect the public's health. Public health funding shortages are chronic. Corporate income tax avoidance is one source of unrealized federal...
- Managing Religion and Morality Within the Abortion Experience: Qualitative Interviews With Women Obtaining Abortions in the U.S.
Most women in the United States are religious, and most major religions in the United States doctrinally disapprove of abortion. A substantial proportion of U.S. women have abortions. Although relationships among religious beliefs, abortion attitudes, behaviors, and stigma have been found in...
- A Design Thinking Mindset Beyond the Public Health Model
In the era of precision medicine, where sequencing genome technology is emerging and extending to the general public, a question remains unclear: Can we bridge policies and programs to foster a human‐centered focus on public health and wellness using personalized medical technology? Public health...
- Examining Joint Effects of Air Pollution Exposure and Social Determinants of Health in Defining “At‐Risk” Populations Under the Clean Air Act: Susceptibility of Pregnant Women to Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy
Pregnant women are uniquely susceptible to adverse effects of air pollution exposure due to vulnerabilities and health consequences during pregnancy (e.g., hypertensive disorders of pregnancy [HDP]) compared to the general population. Because the Clean Air Act (CAA) creates a duty to protect at‐risk...
- Modeling the Effect of Income Segregation on Communicable Disease Transmission
Income segregation has been on the rise in developing countries, where many communicable diseases are still prevalent. This study investigates how income segregation affects communicable disease transmission through the development of a novel model that includes income segregation and individuals’...
- Using a Gender‐Responsive Approach to Generate Policy, Systems, and Environmental Changes to Improve Women's Health
Community coalitions have proven to be an effective mechanism for identifying and addressing social determinants of health. This project mobilized the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC) coalition, bringing together diverse organizations, and community residents in Inkster, MI to...
- Patient Copayments, Provider Incentives, and Income Effects: Theory and Evidence From the Essential Medications List Under China's 2009 Healthcare Reform
Expanding access through insurance expansion can increase health‐care utilization through moral hazard. Reforming provider incentives to introduce more supply‐side cost sharing is increasingly viewed as crucial for affordable, sustainable access. Using both difference‐in‐differences and segmented...
- A Qualitative Study Exploring How Family Planning Beliefs and Attitudes Contribute to Family Planning Behavior in Rural, Southeastern Kenya: Application of the Social Ecological Model
Overall, about 20 percent or 8.9 million women in Kenya have unmet family planning needs. The total fertility rate as of 2014 was 3.9 births per woman, which did not meet the Kenya National Population Policy for Sustainable Development target rate of 2.5, a rate that was set to help improve the...
- Does Race Matter in Addressing Homelessness? A Review of the Literature
Since the 1980s, black persons have been overrepresented in the United States homeless population. Given that morbidity and mortality is elevated among both the black population and the homeless population in comparison to the general U.S. population, this overrepresentation has important...