Journal of Drug Issues
- Sage Publications, Inc.
- Publication date:
- Nbr. 52-1, January 2022
- Nbr. 51-4, October 2021
- Nbr. 51-3, July 2021
- Nbr. 51-2, April 2021
- Nbr. 51-1, January 2021
- Nbr. 50-4, October 2020
- Nbr. 50-3, July 2020
- Nbr. 50-2, April 2020
- Nbr. 50-1, January 2020
- Nbr. 49-4, October 2019
- Nbr. 49-3, July 2019
- Nbr. 49-2, April 2019
- Nbr. 49-1, January 2019
- Nbr. 48-4, October 2018
- Nbr. 48-3, July 2018
- Nbr. 48-2, April 2018
- Nbr. 48-1, January 2018
- Nbr. 47-4, October 2017
- Nbr. 47-3, July 2017
- Nbr. 47-2, April 2017
- Substance Use and Chemsex in MSM - A Latent Class Analysis
Engagement in “chemsex” among men who have sex with men is associated with higher rates of STIs and HIV seroconversion as well as an increased mental health burden. MSM were recruited for an anonymous online survey. The survey included questions of substance use, consumption motives, sexual risk behavior, HIV serostatus, and psychological characteristics. A latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups based on the consumed substances. 597 MSM answered the questionnaire. The latent class analysis revealed four different clusters. Most men described the use of amyl nitrite and cannabis (n = 370). One cluster consumed mainly MDMA, cocaine, and amphetamine (n = 106) and another cluster used mainly chemsex-related drugs (n = 43). A fourth cluster reported a range of consumed substances (n = 78). This cluster reported higher rates of suicide attempts, STIs, and risk behaviors. Substances typically related to chemsex were consumed in a sexualized context to a relevant extent.
- The Intersection Between Sex and Race in Understanding Substance Co-Use Patterns in Adolescents From the Fragile Families Study
The current study examined the prevalence of alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis co-use among a longitudinal cohort of youth predominately born to single-parent families. Data were drawn from wave six of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2976; Mage = 15.6; 49% female; 53% non-Hispanic Black, 27% Hispanic, 20% White). Adolescents’ reports of their past 30-day use of alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis were used to construct eight mutually exclusive use groups. Multinomial logistic regressions adjusting for sociodemographic factors revealed that Black adolescents were at lower relative risk of using Alcohol Only compared to White adolescents. Black males were at greater relative risk of using Cannabis Only than both White males and Black females. Finally, Hispanic males were at a marginally increased relative risk of co-using Alcohol and Cannabis compared to White males. Prevention efforts targeting Black and Hispanic males’ use of cannabis (both alone and in combination with alcohol) may be beneficial.
- A Preliminary Study Examining Self-Reported Invincibility, Alcohol Problems, and the Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants in College Students
The nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) is becoming more common among college students. Identifying the variables associated with NMUPS is important for educational efforts and to promote wellness in vulnerable students. The present study examined the relationships between self-reported invincibility, alcohol problems, and NMUPS in 175 college students. Path analysis tested the hypotheses that males would report higher invincibility that would be related to alcohol use and alcohol problems. Using structural equation modeling, significant relationships were found between invincibility and alcohol-related problems. Alcohol problems may be related to NMUPS. A total effect of invincibility, mediated by alcohol use, may be a path whereby invincibility positively influences NMUPS. Students reporting high levels of invincibility may be at risk for the NMUPS and might benefit from efforts regarding the potential harmful consequences of taking these substances without a prescription.
- Emerging Attitudes Regarding Decriminalization: Predictors of Pro-Drug Decriminalization Attitudes in Canada
Canada and the United States have recently evaluated the decriminalization of drugs as multiple provinces and states put motions forward to consider drug decriminalization legislation. The influence of factors such as demographics, substance use, perceived substance use risk, and personality have not been widely studied in predicting attitudes toward drug decriminalization. A total of 504 participants were drawn from university (n = 269, 53.37%) and community samples (n = 235, 46.63%) through online social media groups and posts (i.e., Facebook, Twitter, Reddit, etc). Analyses indicated that male gender, single or non-married relationship status, living outside of Atlantic Canada, higher problematic alcohol use scores, lower Extraversion, higher Open-mindedness, and lower perceived risk of using substances emerged as significant predictors of support for drug decriminalization. These findings have important implications as public attitudes toward a substance influence drug policy.
- Illicit Drug Use Pattern, Health-Risk Behaviors, and Social Contexts Among Indonesian Students
Health-risk behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and premarital sex) among Indonesian students are important issues. Understanding the association of these health-risk behaviors and adolescents’ social contexts (family, peers, and neighborhood characteristics) to illicit drug use is required to develop strategies in preventing illicit drug use in Indonesia. The study used a multi-stage cluster random sampling method to collect data from the 2016 National Narcotics Survey of Indonesian students. The sample included 31,439 students. The result shows that the illicit drug use pattern was different from previous studies: the most prevalent was at the senior high school level. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that smoking, alcohol consumption, premarital sex, peers, sex, family, and neighborhood were associated with illicit drug use. The study highlighted the importance of health-risk behaviors, social contexts of adolescents, and the illicit drug use pattern as considering factors in developing strategies to reduce illicit drug use prevalence.
- The Spiral of Positive Feedback: Go-Along Interviews About Adolescents’ Perceptions of and Reactions to Alcohol Posts on Social Media
Go-along interviews among adolescents (N = 26, Mage = 16.31, SD = .83) were conducted to examine how adolescents interpret alcohol posts in terms of appropriateness and how this, in turn, plays a role in adolescents’ reactions toward alcohol posts on public and private social media entries. The findings of this study, first, indicate that alcohol posts were classified as appropriate or inappropriate based on the amount of alcohol and the displayed behavior in the post. Second, most posts, including inappropriate ones, received positive or no feedback. Moreover, adolescents deliberately seemed to withhold negative feedback out of fear of being misjudged by peers. Still, negative reactions were expressed more quickly in safer off- and online environments (i.e., face-to-face conversation and online chat messages) because they were visible to close friends only. This is important in view of prevention as it unravels the interesting role of private environments in stimulating negative interpersonal communication.
- Primary Purpose for Committing a Crime and Past-30 Day Opioid Misuse: A Statewide Sample of Justice-Involved Children
The prevalence of opioid misuse (OM) among justice-involved children (JIC) is significantly higher than children in the general population, yet little research has examined the predictors of OM among JIC. Goldstein’s “economic compulsive model” hypothesizes that JIC who commit crimes for material gain will have a higher likelihood of meeting past-30 day (P30D) OM criteria. The data in this study were cross-sectional and represented 79,960 Florida JIC. To test the hypothesis, logistic regression analyses were utilized. Over 2000 JIC (2.67%) met P30D OM criteria and JIC who committed crimes for material gain were 2.55 times as likely to meet P30D OM criteria. Findings indicate that children may be incarcerated due to an inability to afford their addiction, contributing to the criminalization of mental health. JIC could benefit from the increased utilization of drug courts and the implementation of a cascade of care model.
- Court-Mandated Treatment Outcomes for Prescribed Opioid Use Disorder: A Gender Based Study
This study provides empirical information suggesting court-mandated treatment may be a more effective treatment pathway for opioid use disorder (OUD). To examine the effects of mandated treatment for prescription opioid users, we consider the differences in discharge completion rates for court-mandated and non-mandated treatment for both males and females. We use the Treatment Episode Data Set-Discharges (TEDS-D) from 2015 to 2017 with 13,239, 14,765, and 15,433 cases, respectively, to study successful completion rates for males and females with OUD. Logistic regression analysis confirms a greater completion rate for mandated treatment episodes. Of all mandated females, 59% completed treatment in each of the 3 years as compared to the 59%, 65%, and 64% of successful completion for mandated males, respectively, from 2015 to 2017. Our results suggest court-mandated treatment pathways are more effective on treatment completion for individuals with OUD, yet treatment completion disparity between sexes increases even when females are mandated.
- Cannabis Use Among Mental Health Professionals: A Qualitative Study of Cannabis-Related Risk Perceptions
Background: Perceptions of cannabis-related risk are changing, and many are viewing cannabis as harmless despite the biopsychosocial risks. Perceptions of risk have an impact on behavior as individuals who are less likely to view cannabis as risky are more likely to use it problematically. Purpose: This study examined how mental health professionals who use cannabis perceive the risks related to use. Methods: Interpretative phenomenological analysis was utilized to understand how participants made sense of the harm related to personal and client use. Interviews were conducted with a sample of social workers, nurses, and psychotherapists who work with cannabis-consuming clients. Results: Participants reported cannabis use is related to anxiety, relational challenges, impaired driving, psychosis, cognitive impairment, educational/employment dysfunction, and addiction in some users. Conclusion: Assessing risk perceptions among cannabis users can reveal subtle psychosocial problems the user may be experiencing. Mental health workers may benefit from further education regarding cannabis-related physical health harm.
- Modeling the System of Beliefs That Affect Driving Under the Influence of Cannabis and Alcohol in Washington State
Washington state has observed increases in polydrug use in fatal crashes, primarily involving the combination of cannabis and alcohol. The purpose of this article is to explore the belief system associated with driving under the influence of cannabis and alcohol (DUICA) in Washington state using structural equation modeling (SEM). A convenience sample (n = 737) of surveys collected from adults in Washington state was analyzed using SEM to reveal the latent structure of the belief system associated with DUICA. The results of this analysis indicated that the reported DUICA behavior (frequency) was predicted by intention and willingness. Willingness also predicted intention. Intention and willingness were predicted by positive attitudes toward DUICA, as well as normative perceptions that it was acceptable to important people and common behavior for most people. These components were themselves predicted by corresponding beliefs (behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and control beliefs). Finally, these beliefs were also influenced by the values that were most important to the respondents. Based on these results, it is reasonable to speculate that strategies to change these beliefs may also reduce DUICA behavior and associated fatal crashes.
- Intergenerational Mobility and Changes in Drug Use Across the Life Course
The consequences of “falling from grace”—or experiencing downward intergenerational mobility—are indeed becoming an abrupt reality for many entering the labor force. Scholars of social mobility speculate that such life course trajectories can result in antisocial behavior, but few have examined...
- Nonproblematic Illegal Drug Use
Given the scant knowledge regarding illicit drug users who maintain an overall conventional lifestyle, we aimed to develop a conceptual framework to understand how they manage to keep their drug use nonproblematic. We were interested in the individual’s experiential component, so we interviewed...
- The Spillover Effect of Recreational Marijuana Legalization on Crime: Evidence From Neighboring States of Colorado and Washington State
An ongoing debate exists about the implications of recreational marijuana legalization to public safety. One important public concern is how recreational marijuana legalization may affect crime in neighboring states that have not legalized. Based on Uniform Crime Report (UCR) data from 2003 to 2017,...
- Drink, Share, and Comment; Wait, What Did I Just Do? Understanding Online Alcohol-Related Regret Experiences Among Emerging Adults
This study investigated the causes and coping strategies of regret of sharing alcohol-related content on social media. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among emerging adults who experienced regret of having shared either general alcohol references or drunken references (n = 29, ages 19–25...
- Peers, Perceptions, and E-Cigarettes: A Social Learning Approach to Explaining E-Cigarette Use Among Youth
This study uses social learning theory to examine whether differential associations with e-cigarette-using peers is related to personal e-cigarette use among youth, and the extent to which this relationship is explained by personal risk perceptions of e-cigarettes. Moreover, this study tests...
- Exploring Stakeholder and Parent Perspectives of a County Response to Adolescent Vaping and E-Cigarette Use
In the United States, regular cigarette use has steadily declined over the years; however, it has been met with an increase in vaping and e-cigarette use. In Tampa, Florida, this trend has been found especially prevalent among school-aged youth. To combat issues of substance use among youth and...
- Examining the Coevolution of Drug Use Variety and Different Types of Offending Frequency Among Justice-Involved Adolescents
Past research demonstrates a strong link between drug use and crime among justice-involved adolescents, yet little is known about the joint development between drug use variety and various types of criminal offending frequencies from adolescence to young adulthood. Using a sample of male adolescent ...
- Situating Vulnerability and Exploitation in Street-Level Drug Markets: Cuckooing, Commuting, and the “County Lines” Drug Supply Model
The emergence of “county lines” drug dealing, a supply model which sees drug dealers travel from urban hubs to provincial locations to retail heroin and crack cocaine, is now established in the United Kingdom. This market trend has been associated with novel and evolving distribution practices, yet ...
- Collaboration: A Mechanism of Drug Court Model Adherence
Drug courts solve problems, namely, reducing drug use and recidivism. The current research attempts to answer the question of how to ensure program fidelity and therefore optimize the efficacy of drug courts. Justice professionals and scholars have recognized that there are multiple internal and...
- How Do Illicit Drugs Move Across Countries? A Network Analysis of the Heroin Supply to Europe
Illicit drugs are trafficked across manifold borders before ultimately reaching consumers. Consequently, interdiction of cross-border drug trafficking forms a critical component of the European Union’s initiative to reduce drug supplies. However, there is contradictory evidence about its...