Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice

Publisher:
Sage Publications, Inc.
Publication date:
2021-09-06
ISBN:
1043-9862

Latest documents

  • Empty Streets, Busy Internet: A Time-Series Analysis of Cybercrime and Fraud Trends During COVID-19

    The unprecedented changes in routine activities brought about by COVID-19 and the associated lockdown measures contributed to a reduction in opportunities for predatory crimes in outdoor physical spaces, while people spent more time connected to the internet, and opportunities for cybercrime and fraud increased. This article applies time-series analysis to historical data on cybercrime and fraud reported to Action Fraud in the United Kingdom to examine whether any potential increases are beyond normal crime variability. Furthermore, the discrepancies between fraud types and individual and organizational victims are also analyzed. The results show that while both total cybercrime and total fraud increased beyond predicted levels, the changes in victimization were not homogeneous across fraud types and victims. The implications of these findings on how changes in routine activities during COVID-19 have influenced cybercrime and fraud opportunities are discussed in relation to policy, practice, and academic debate.

  • Where, When, and By Whom: An Exploratory Analysis of COVID-19 Public Health Violations

    COVID-19 health restrictions not only affected crime rates but also created a new and temporary type of crime, COVID-19 public health violations. Unfortunately, this new crime type has not yet been empirically scrutinized. The current study is the first to explore these COVID-19 public health violations by using a dataset created by the City of San Antonio which documents all calls and inspections about COVID-19 public health violations. Specifically, this study investigates the location types (where) that produce the greatest number of calls/inspections, warnings, and citations for COVID-19 public health violations; how they trended over time (when); and which agencies responded to and enforced them (who). The results indicate that there were differences across location type, variation throughout the observation period, and violations were enforced by several agencies. It is crucial to document the effect of COVID-19-related policies so that we may be better prepared for the future.

  • Crime, Criminal Justice, and the COVID-19 Crisis Lockdown: A Special Issue Introduction
  • Against All Odds, Femicide Did Not Increase During the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence From Six Spanish-Speaking Countries

    This paper tests a situational hypothesis which postulates that the number of femicides should increase as an unintended consequence of the COVID-19-related lockdowns. The monthly data on femicides from 2017 to 2020 collected in six Spanish-speaking countries—Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Panama, Mexico, and Spain—and analyzed using threshold models indicate that the hypothesis must be rejected. The total number of femicides in 2020 was similar to that recorded during each of the three previous years, and femicides did not peak during the months of the strictest lockdowns. In fact, their monthly distribution in 2020 did not differ from the seasonal distribution of femicides in any former year. The discussion criticizes the current state of research on femicide and its inability to inspire effective criminal polices. It also proposes three lines of intervention. The latter are based on a holistic approach that places femicide in the context of crimes against persons, incorporates biology and neuroscience approaches, and expands the current cultural explanations of femicide.

  • The 2020 Coronavirus Pandemic and Its Corresponding Data Boon: Issues With Pandemic-Related Data From Criminal Justice Organizations

    Public organizations, including institutions in the U.S. criminal justice (CJ) system, have been rapidly releasing information pertaining to COVID-19. Even CJ institutions typically reticent to share information, like private prisons, have released vital COVID-19 information. The boon of available pandemic-related data, however, is not without problems. Unclear conceptualizations, stakeholders’ influence on data collection and release, and a lack of experience creating public dashboards on health data are just a few of the issues plaguing CJ institutions surrounding releasing COVID-19 data. In this article, we detail issues that institutions in each arm of the CJ system face when releasing pandemic-related data. We conclude with a set of recommendations for researchers seeking to use the abundance of publicly available data on the effects of the pandemic.

  • Domestic Violence During a Global Pandemic: Lockdown Policies and Their Impacts Across Guatemala

    This study uses official data from Guatemala’s Departamento de Atencion a la Victima (Victim Attention Department), a specialized unit in Guatemala’s National Civil Police, to assess the long-term impacts of a government mandated lockdown and reopening on domestic violence. It also considers how the lockdown and reopening impacted domestic violence across administrative departments in the country. Our findings suggest that combined, daily cases of domestic violence were already decreasing prior to the pandemic lockdown and that both the shutdown and the reopening altered the patterning of domestic violence, first to increase domestic violence and then to decrease it, respectively. When assessing this trend across departments, not every department exhibited the same, national-level trend, but instead domestic violence trends varied. This study provides a starting point in analyzing long-term pandemic-related policy responses and their impacts on domestic violence in international contexts.

  • Did Covid-19 Lead to an Increase in Hate Crimes Toward Chinese People in London?

    We examine whether Covid-19, which is widely believed to have originated in China, negatively affected the environment for Chinese people in London leading to an increase in hate crimes toward this group relative to others. With data from the Metropolitan Police for the whole of the Metropolitan area of London, we use a difference-in-differences approach to examine what happened to hate crimes against Chinese people in London in the months before (October to December 2019) and the months after the Covid-19 pandemic (January to March 2020) relative to other ethnic groups, to other crimes, and to other time periods. Our methodology utilizes the fact that Covid-19 came as an unexpected shock, which very quickly changed the environment for crime, and did so differentially across ethnicities. We argue that this shock is likely to negatively affect attitudes and behaviors toward Chinese people, but has no effect on other ethnicities. Our results show that in the months after Covid-19, there was an increase in hate crimes against Chinese people, but this increase was not seen among the other ethnic groups, other non hate crimes, or in any other time period. This leads us to conclude that Covid-19 led to an increase in hate crimes against Chinese people in London. That Covid-19 changed behavior toward Chinese people highlights an intrinsic link between Covid-19 and racism. Unfortunately, the rise in hate crime that we identify adds to a growing list of ways in which ethnic minority groups disproportionately suffered, and continue to do so, during the pandemic.

  • Impacts of Incarceration on Health Focusing on Minority Males: Considerations for COVID-19 and Future Pandemics

    Long-standing health and social inequalities associated with minorities have increased their risk for infection, hospitalization, and death related to COVID-19. This disparity is further exacerbated with incarcerated individuals, yet little attention, both prepandemic and presently, has been devoted to collecting up-to-date data. This study uses the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (SISCF), the most recent data, to explore the general offender population and self-reported chronic and medical health conditions to highlight how COVID-19 will impact marginalized populations. Results from the four binary regression models found that minority males are more likely to have chronic illnesses which increase in probability with longer sentences, number of incarcerations, and advancement in age. Our findings advocate for the development of recent data sets on inmate health, particularly minority individuals, as well as the construction of more precise health measures to address these health disparities, including COVID-19.

  • The “Third-Victimization”: The Cybervictimization of Sexual Assault Survivors and Their Families

    Sexual assault has a devastating effect on survivors as well as their family and friends (i.e., secondary survivors). Research shows that survivors’ abilities to cope in the aftermath of sexual trauma are particularly difficult in the “internet” age. This struggle stems from the abilities of perpetrators to use cyberspace to abuse, harass, and threaten survivors vis-à-vis various cybercrimes: cyberstalking, cybersexual abuse, and cyberfraud. Indeed, a survivor in this study referred to the cybervictimizations as the “third-victimization” because it followed the sexual assault (first) and the “revictimization” experienced during the pursuit of justice (second). This article presents the results of semistructured interviews about the third-victimization of 48 female survivors and 89 secondary survivors, the family of the survivor. These results show that all primary and most secondary survivors (91%) experienced at least one third-victimization, with a majority experiencing multiple forms.

  • Perceived Formal and Informal Sanctions in Deterring Cybercrime in a College Sample

    The threat of formal sanctions is the criminal justice system’s primary tool to discourage online and offline deviant behavior. Yet, scholars have expressed strong concerns about the effectiveness of formal sanctions to deter cybercrime. Even more surprising is the sparsity of deterrence research in the cybercrime literature. This study examined the effects of perceived formal and informal sanctions on digital piracy, computer hacking, and online harassment in a large American college sample. Perceived formal sanctions was negatively correlated with software piracy, media piracy, password cracking, accessing accounts, sending mean messages privately online, and posting mean messages. Higher levels of perceived formal sanctions did not significantly predict any form of cybercrime, however, when controlling for informal sanctions and deviant peer associations. The implications of the findings for our ability to deter deviant behavior in cyberspace are explored.

Featured documents

  • The Global Waste Trafficking and Its Correlates

    Our understanding of illicit waste trafficking (IWT) is in its embryonic stages; most notably, the transnational nature of this phenomenon has hitherto been neglected in extant empirical research. This study provides the first analysis of the possible coorrelates of transnational IWT at a global...

  • Inmates and Prison Involvement With Drugs

    Using data from one Midwestern state, the present study focuses on the importation and deprivation characteristics of 543 adult inmates to identify the types of inmates who participate in drug-related behavior during their incarceration. Overall, findings reveal that currently or formerly married...

  • Female Sex Offenders in Ireland: Examining the Response of the Criminal Justice System

    This article focuses on the Irish criminal justice system’s response to female sex offending. As in other jurisdictions, very little attention has been paid to female sexual offending in Ireland. However, sexual offenses involving female offenders are occurring and are increasingly being detected...

  • Visionaries or False Prophets

    Theory and research on the psychology of white-collar offenders has historically been underdeveloped, and our understanding of the prototypical high-socioeconomic-status offenders, such as today’s chief executive officers and chief financial officers, first identified by Edwin Sutherland, has not...

  • Did Covid-19 Lead to an Increase in Hate Crimes Toward Chinese People in London?

    We examine whether Covid-19, which is widely believed to have originated in China, negatively affected the environment for Chinese people in London leading to an increase in hate crimes toward this group relative to others. With data from the Metropolitan Police for the whole of the Metropolitan...

  • Where, When, and By Whom: An Exploratory Analysis of COVID-19 Public Health Violations

    COVID-19 health restrictions not only affected crime rates but also created a new and temporary type of crime, COVID-19 public health violations. Unfortunately, this new crime type has not yet been empirically scrutinized. The current study is the first to explore these COVID-19 public health...

  • Everything That Is Old Is New Again—Old Again—New Again . . .

    Since the decade of the 1970s, the policies and practices in probation, parole, and community corrections have vacillated between an emphasis on rehabilitation and enforcement, and most recently back to rehabilitation. While these paradigmatic shifts in ideology are driven by top management,...

  • Where Do Dealers Solicit Customers and Sell Them Drugs? A Micro-Level Multiple Method Study

    According to a rational choice theory of crime location choice, offenders commit crimes at locations where the mix of expected rewards and costs is optimal. The present study applied this general theory to a very specific crime—illicit drug dealing in an open air drug market—and tested it in the...

  • An Integrated Theory of Hot Spots Patrol Strategy

    In late 2013, Trinidad and Tobago Police Service (TTPS) conducted the first randomized experiment ever to test a hot spots patrol strategy (HSPS) across large areas, as distinct from testing extra patrols one hot spot at a time. The HSPS experiment required, and helped to refine, a formal theory of ...

  • Terrorism as Self-Help: Accounts of Palestinian Youth Incarcerated in Israeli Prisons for Security Violations

    Adopting and expanding Black’s conception of terrorism as self-help, this study examines how Palestinian youth become involved in security violations. Based on an analysis of in-depth interviews conducted with 10 Palestinian youth incarcerated in Israeli prisons, their experiences are described,...

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