International Criminal Justice Review
- Sage Publications, Inc.
- Publication date:
- Nbr. 32-2, June 2022
- Nbr. 32-1, March 2022
- Nbr. 31-4, December 2021
- Nbr. 31-3, September 2021
- Nbr. 31-2, June 2021
- Nbr. 31-1, March 2021
- Nbr. 30-4, December 2020
- Nbr. 30-3, September 2020
- Nbr. 30-2, June 2020
- Nbr. 30-1, March 2020
- Nbr. 29-4, December 2019
- Nbr. 29-3, September 2019
- Nbr. 29-2, June 2019
- Nbr. 29-1, March 2019
- Nbr. 28-4, December 2018
- Nbr. 28-3, September 2018
- Nbr. 28-2, June 2018
- Nbr. 28-1, March 2018
- Nbr. 27-4, December 2017
- Nbr. 27-3, September 2017
- Book Review: The investigator: Demons of the Balkan War by V. Dzuro
- Mediating Violence in Jamaica Through a Gang Truce
The article examines a gang-related peace initiative instituted in Greater August Town, Jamaica. Our objective was to understand the negotiation processes and determine whether the gang truce resulted in the desired outcome: a reduction in homicide. Bivariate analyses showed a significant decline in homicides immediately following the truce. Upon closer examination, however, comparing change in the target area to the balance areas in Jamaica and accounting for temporal trends, we found that the decline in homicide was part of a larger nationwide decline in violence and that the gang truce was not responsible for the decline. The only significant effect was the possibility that homicides were displaced outside the target area for a brief period of time.
- Motives of Knife-Carrying among the Youth in Azerbaijan: In-Depth Interviews Among 27 Experts and 5 Knife-Carriers
Drawing on in-depth interviews with psychologists, criminologists, and sociologists (n = 27), as well as five adolescents (aged between 15 and 17 years) with a history of knife-carrying in Azerbaijan, this study attempts to explore the motives for knife-carrying among the male youth. Using a phenomenological approach, the interviews found a set of mixed and interrelated factors as the key motivators of carrying a knife among male youth. The answers provided by members of both samples generally overlap, but each provides some unique insights as well. Experts argue that young men tend to suffer from poor socialization and fail academically, which forces them to seek companionship, status, and identity elsewhere. In such circumstances, adolescents become likely to fall under the influence of their peers, as well as the criminal world whose figures are widely popular in the country. Since knife-carrying provides a sense of power and self-esteem, as well as constitutes a core attribute of notorious criminal figures, it becomes attractive to the youth. Male interviewees with a history of knife-carrying, all with irregular class attendance and part of “circles” (deviant peer groups), were attracted to sharp objects (a) by their ability to project power to others around them, such as so-called “predators” and (b) rule of the circles. The desire to exercise informal control over an area (school or neighborhood) and emulate thieves-in-law was particularly critical in shaping adolescents’ decision to carry knives and five-knuckle. The findings not only largely confirm the results reported by the Western studies, but also advance our understanding of youth's inclination towards knife-carrying in a nonwestern society.
- Book Review: Reconstructing rights: Courts, parties, and equality rights in India, South Africa, and the United States by S. Stohler
- Book Review: The Tokyo trial, justice, and the postwar international order by A. Babovic
- Quantifying Marginality Across the Globe: An Empirical Assessment of Vigil’s Multiple Marginality Model in Predicting Gang Involvement
Vigil’s multiple marginality (MM) model of gang formation has resulted in hypotheses about why minority youth join gangs, and how these processes play out at multiple levels of analysis and across contexts. However, with a few exceptions, this framework has rarely been tested quantitatively, and especially in countries outside of North America. The current study assesses the MM model using data from the Second International Self-Report Delinquency Study and aggregate country-level data. Results from multilevel analyses reveal some support for the framework, in that at least one measure of each component of the MM model was found to be a significant predictor of gang membership. Controlling for individual and country variables, measures of street socialization exhibited the strongest effects on gang involvement. Yet not all proposed factors were significant predictors across all models. Longitudinal data are necessary to fully support the dynamics of the MM model.
- The Impact of Peer Groups and Routine Activities on the Victim-Offender Overlap: Evidence From a German Study on Youth Crime
Despite the substantive evidence on the victim-offender overlap from various national contexts, comprehensive examinations for Germany are lacking. This article provides insights into peer group-related correlates of the victim-offender overlap by specifically differentiating the roles of victims, offenders, and victim-offenders. The analysis examines risk factors for involvement in violence using a sample of 3,519 14- and 16-year-old students from a large crime study conducted in Germany. Applying multinomial logistic regression, the risk of being a victim-only, offender-only, or victim-offender is predicted by peer group characteristics such as frequency of meeting, group composition, delinquent norms, and routine activities with friends. The results show that proximity to friends and delinquent norms of peers significantly influence victimization, offending, and the victim-offender overlap. Regarding group composition, violent offending and being a victim-offender occurred more often in male-dominated mixed-gender friend groups, whereas victimization risk is not affected by group composition. Frequent alcohol consumption within the group is associated with victimization risk and the victim-offender overlap, whereas going out is associated with offending and the overlap. The findings underline that the peer context is not only of importance for explaining delinquency but also for unraveling victimization and the victim-offender overlap.
- Social Capital and Delinquency in Bagcilar, Turkey
There is a growing literature on social capital and delinquency. Most research has been done in Western industrial countries, has used limited measures of delinquency, and has employed surveys developed locally as opposed to using internationally validated instruments. Using data from the European Youth Survey, this study addresses these limitations by examining the relationship between social capital and self-reported delinquency among Turkish juveniles. The data were collected from a sample of tenth graders in 2007 in Bagcilar neighborhood of Istanbul. Self-reported delinquency was divided into two categories, major and minor, based on the Turkish Penal Code. Social capital was measured by assessing adolescents’ reports of their direct interactions with parents, peers and community. To predict the likelihood of major and minor delinquency independently, two different subsets (n = 1,879 and n = 1,837) of the data were used. Findings indicate that the presence of family social capital and community social capital had significant negative relationships with both major and minor delinquency. The presence of delinquent peers was significantly associated with both increases in major and minor delinquency. Overall, our findings suggest that social capital was negatively related to Turkish juveniles’ self-reported involvement in major and minor delinquent activities.
- Book Review: Transnational organized crime in Latin America and the Caribbean: From evolving threats and responses to integrated, adaptive solutions by R. E. Ellis
- ICJR Publications Received
- The Mens Rea of Human Trafficking: The Case of Migrant Domestic Workers
Efforts to eradicate human trafficking continue, with the 2017 Trafficking in Persons Report calling on governments to improve the detection and prosecution of all involved in this crime, with specific reference to recruitment agencies. Yet despite calls to examine the wider scope of potential...
- The Perceived Effect of a Witness Security Program on Willingness to Testify
To encourage witnesses to testify, witness security programs have been established to protect people who testify against offenders. Research on the impact of witness protection programs on the willingness of people to testify, however, is scarce. To fill the gap, this research was conducted in...
- Book Review: Gender and violence in Haiti: Women’s paths from victims to agents
- Concentrated Violence: The Influence of Criminal Activity and Governance on Prison Violence in Latin America
In this article, we explore patterns of prison violence in five Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, and Peru. Drawing on data from prisoner surveys conducted in 49 facilities with over 4,400 prisoners, we analyze the association between facility-level and individual-leve...
- Understanding Compliance Dynamics in Community Justice Settings
This article seeks to expand the existing literature on compliance in community justice settings by highlighting the importance of service user participation in efforts to achieve compliance. The article’s central argument is that although co-productive strategies can enhance service user...
- A Cross-National Analysis of Principals’ Reports of School Violence
School violence is a growing problem throughout the world, although some nations exhibit higher rates of violence than others. This research examines the relationships between measures of strain and principals’ reports of school violence in schools across 39 nation-units derived from the 2007...
- Framing in the Making
Previous research on sexual violence has focused on individual-level behaviors that typically include a single victim in an isolated event. Criminologists have failed to examine sexual violence as a group-level phenomenon, which is often exhibited during war. For this study, case study methodology...
- Japan’s Lay Judge System
In 1999, major changes to Japan’s criminal justice system were proposed, and over the next 10 years, many were implemented. One of the changes created the lay judge system (saiban-in seido), wherein citizens serve as fact finders during trials of serious criminal cases. The purpose of the lay judge ...
- Prison Privatization: An Empirical Literature Review and Path Forward
A substantial body of literature has been devoted to examine the efficacy of prison privatization. Unfortunately, the empirical findings to date are equivocal regarding whether prison privatization fulfills its promises and our expectations of cost efficiency, prison quality, postrelease success,...
- Prison Riots in Nicaragua: Negotiating Co-Governance Amid Creative Violence and Public Secrecy
In this article, I explore how prison riots, large critical incidents of a collective order, emerge, take place, and alter governance relations in place in the Nicaraguan prison system. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted with prisoners and former prisoners of two Nicaraguan prison...