- Publication date:
- Nbr. 53-2, May 2018
- Nbr. 53-1, February 2018
- Nbr. 52-4, November 2017
- Nbr. 52-3, August 2017
- Nbr. 52-2, May 2017
- Nbr. 52-1, February 2017
- Nbr. 51-4, November 2016
- Nbr. 51-3, August 2016
- Nbr. 51-2, May 2016
- Nbr. 51-1, February 2016
- Nbr. 50-4, November 2015
- Nbr. 50-3, August 2015
- Nbr. 50-2, May 2015
- Nbr. 50-1, February 2015
- Nbr. 49-4, November 2014
- Nbr. 49-3, August 2014
- Nbr. 49-2, May 2014
- Nbr. 49-1, February 2014
- Nbr. 48-4, November 2013
- Nbr. 48-3, August 2013
- Credit Ratings and Managerial Voluntary Disclosures
This study investigates whether managers influence credit ratings via voluntary disclosures. I find that firms near a rating change have a higher incidence of a disclosure regarding product and business expansion (PBE) plans. This finding is more evident for firms that are subject to lower proprietary costs of disclosures, which implies that managers do trade off both the benefits and costs of the disclosures. I find no evidence that firms close to a rating change selectively release good news or suppress bad news on PBE. Overall, my results suggest that firms generally exhibit a credible commitment to maintaining disclosure transparency for a desired credit rating.
- Issue Information
- Director Networks and Credit Ratings
We explore the effect of director social capital, directors with large and influential networks, on credit ratings. Using a sample of 11,172 firm‐year observations from 1999 to 2011, we find that larger board networks are associated with higher credit ratings than both firm financial data and probabilities of default predict. Near‐investment grade firms improve their forward‐looking ratings when their board is more connected. Last, we find that larger director networks are more beneficial during recessions, and times of increased financial uncertainty. Our results are robust to controls for endogeneity. Tests confirm that causality runs from connected boards to credit ratings.
- Corporate Governance and Firm Survival
We explore how various aspects of corporate governance influence the likelihood of a public corporation surviving as a separate public entity, after addressing potential endogeneity that arises from competing corporate exit outcomes: acquisitions, going‐private transactions, and bankruptcies. We find that some corporate governance features are more important determinants of the form of a firm's exit than many economic factors that have figured prominently in prior research. We also find evidence that outsider‐dominated boards and lower restrictions on internal governance play major roles in the way firms exit public markets, particularly when a firm's industry suffers a negative shock. Overall, our results suggest that failure to recognize competing risks produces biased estimates, resulting in faulty inferences.
- Corporate Governance, Social Responsibility, and Data Breaches
We study whether corporate governance and social responsibility are related to data breaches. We find that socially responsible companies with smaller boards and greater financial expertise are less likely to be breached. The financial impact of a breach is visible in the long term. Specifically, data‐breach firms have –3.5% one‐year buy‐and‐hold abnormal returns. Additionally, banks with breaches have significant declines in deposits and nonbanks have significant declines in sales in the long run. Finally, we find that following a data breach, companies are more likely to replace their chief executive officer and chief technology officer as well as improve their governance and social responsibility.
- A Long‐Run Performance Perspective on the Technology Bubble
The events surrounding the stock price peak of March 2000 are commonly interpreted as the bursting of a technology or Internet bubble, with some researchers pointing out that the pattern could also arise in fundamental models. We inform the debate by studying the long‐run performance of Internet and technology stocks from March 2000 onward. Using calendar‐time regressions, we do not find conclusive evidence of negative abnormal returns. The results are consistent with a new interpretation of the events; namely, the price drop of the early 2000s was not warranted in light of future cash flows and risk.
- CEO Incentives and Corporate Innovation
Using scaled wealth‐performance sensitivity as my measure of Chief Executive Officer (CEO) incentives, and utilizing cross‐sectional variations in industry innovativeness, product market competition and firms’ degree of exposure to the market for corporate control for identification purposes, I find that higher long‐term incentives that stem from CEO holdings of unvested options are associated with greater subsequent corporate innovation in innovative industries, competitive product markets, and firms more exposed to the threat of hostile takeovers, that is, exactly where incentivizing innovation is a matter of necessity. I address the endogeneity concerns with systems of simultaneous equations estimated using three‐stage least squares. A possible channel for the observed relation between unvested options‐based incentives and subsequent corporate innovation is that these incentives encourage managers to undertake riskier projects to achieve long‐term economic benefits.
- Exploiting the “Win But Does Not Cover” Phenomenon in College Basketball
Wolfers (2006) was the first to document that heavy favorites in college basketball win but fail to cover the pre‐game point spread at a statistically higher rate than expected. We generate a hedged strategy to exploit the “win but does not cover” phenomenon using two wagers: a bet on the underdog sides line and a bet on the favorite money line. While one bet is guaranteed to win regardless of the outcome, both bets win if the favorite wins but does not cover. We show that the minimum‐variance portfolio best exploits this anomaly, yielding an average return of 0.34% per game and a positive return in five of the seven seasons of college basketball analyzed.
- ETF Premiums and Liquidity Segmentation
Exchange traded funds (ETFs) provide a means for investors to access assets indirectly that may be accessible at a high cost otherwise. I show that liquidity segmentation can explain the tendency for ETFs to trade at a premium to net asset value (NAV) as well as the life‐cycle pattern in premiums. ETFs with larger NAV tracking error standard deviations (TESDs) tend to trade at higher premiums and the liquidity benefits offered by foreign ETFs and fixed income ETFs are revealed to be the most valuable to investors. Further tests validate that TESD has the desirable properties of a liquidity segmentation measure.
- Relative Liquidity, Fund Flows and Short‐Term Demand: Evidence from Exchange‐Traded Funds
We show that highly liquid Exchange‐Traded Funds (ETFs), especially those that are more liquid than their underlying basket of securities (i.e., positive relative liquidity), are particularly attractive to investors. Using three definitions of liquidity, we find that relative liquidity predicts net fund flows, as well as inflows and outflows positively and significantly. We further document a liquidity clientele among institutional investors: (i) relative liquidity is significantly more important for short‐ than for long‐term investors; and (ii) relative liquidity is inversely related to investors’ average holding duration in the ETFs. These two findings provide evidence that relative liquidity encourages short‐term demand.
- Credit Ratings and Managerial Voluntary Disclosures
This study investigates whether managers influence credit ratings via voluntary disclosures. I find that firms near a rating change have a higher incidence of a disclosure regarding product and business expansion (PBE) plans. This finding is more evident for firms that are subject to lower...
- Does Investment Horizon Matter? Disentangling the Effect of Institutional Herding on Stock Prices
This study finds that, over short horizons, herding by short‐term institutions promotes price discovery. In contrast, herding by long‐term institutions drives stock prices away from fundamentals over the same periods. Furthermore, while the positive predictability of short‐term institutional...
- The Epstein–Zin Model with Liquidity Extension
In this paper, we extend the Epstein–Zin model with liquidity risk and assess the extended model's performance against the traditional consumption pricing models. We show that liquidity is a significant risk factor, and it adds considerable explanatory power to the model. The liquidity‐extended...
- The Global Preference for Dividends in Declining Markets
Investors globally prefer dividend‐paying stocks over nondividend‐paying stocks more in declining than in advancing markets, even accounting for firm‐level growth opportunities, size and risk effects. Dividend‐paying stocks outperform nondividend‐paying stocks, from 0.63% (China) to 3.79% (Canada)...
- The Tax Exemption to Subchapter S Banks: Who Gets the Benefit?
The Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 allows U.S. banks to adopt the Subchapter S status. We investigate if the Subchapter S banks use tax benefits for the intended purposes of “protecting jobs,” “creating opportunities” and “increasing take home pay of workers.” We find that the tax...
- Equity‐Based Incentives, Risk Aversion, and Merger‐Related Risk‐Taking Behavior
We find that post‐merger equity risk is negatively related to the sensitivity of CEO wealth to stock return volatility (vega), but is concentrated in CEOs with high proportions of options and options that are more in‐the‐money. The probability of industrial diversification also increases in vega....
- ETF Premiums and Liquidity Segmentation
Exchange traded funds (ETFs) provide a means for investors to access assets indirectly that may be accessible at a high cost otherwise. I show that liquidity segmentation can explain the tendency for ETFs to trade at a premium to net asset value (NAV) as well as the life‐cycle pattern in premiums....
- Front‐Running Scalping Strategies and Market Manipulation: Why Does High‐Frequency Trading Need Stricter Regulation?
Regulators continue to debate whether high‐frequency trading (HFT) is beneficial to market quality. Using Strongly Typed Genetic Programming (STGP) trading algorithm, we develop several artificial stock markets populated with HFT scalpers and strategic informed traders. We simulate real‐life...
- Short Sale Constraints and Single Stock Futures Introductions
This paper exploits the unique experimental setting created by nearly 1,300 new single stock futures listings on the OneChicago exchange between 2003 and 2009. I investigate the impact of derivatives introductions on the tightness of short sale constraints facing their underlying assets. After...
- A Generalized Earnings‐Based Stock Valuation Model with Learning
We present a stock valuation model in an incomplete‐information environment in which the unobservable mean of earnings growth rate (MEGR) is learned and price is updated continuously. We calibrate our model to a market portfolio to empirically evaluate its performance. Of the 8.84% total risk...