Financial Management

Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
2021-02-01
ISBN:
0046-3892

Latest documents

  • School Holidays and Stock Market Seasonality

    Using school holiday data from 47 countries, we find a strong link between school holidays and market returns. Stock market returns in the month after major school holidays are 0.6% to 1% lower than in other months. This explains, but is not limited to, the “September effect.” In the United States, September is the only month that exhibits a negative average return over the past century. The postschool holiday effect remains even with monthly fixed effects. We explore the explanation that the effect is due to investor inattention during school holidays, which slows the incorporation of (negative) information in security prices.

  • The Shareholder Base Hypothesis of Stock Return Volatility: Empirical Evidence

    We use Swedish ownership data to explore whether a large and diversified shareholder base leads to lower volatility by improving the information content of stock prices. We find that volatility increases in the number of shareholders with respect to both the number of relatively large shareholders and the fraction of shares held by investors with stakes below 0.1%. Volatility is also positively related to the number of institutional owners but negatively related to the number of large and underdiversified institutional owners. Foreign investors have no impact. Our results suggest that a large shareholder base does not lower volatility.

  • Announcements
  • The Shareholder Base Hypothesis of Stock Return Volatility: Empirical Evidence

    We use Swedish ownership data to explore whether a large and diversified shareholder base leads to lower volatility by improving the information content of stock prices. We find that volatility increases in the number of shareholders with respect to both the number of relatively large shareholders and the fraction of shares held by investors with stakes below 0.1%. Volatility is also positively related to the number of institutional owners but negatively related to the number of large and underdiversified institutional owners. Foreign investors have no impact. Our results suggest that a large shareholder base does not lower volatility.

  • CMBS Subordination, Ratings Inflation, and Regulatory‐Capital Arbitrage

    Using detailed origination and performance data on a comprehensive sample of commercial mortgage‐backed security (CMBS) deals, along with their underlying loans and a set of similarly rated residential mortgage‐backed securities (RMBS), we apply reduced‐form and structural modeling strategies to test for regulatory‐capital arbitrage and ratings inflation in the CMBS market. We find that the spread between CMBS and corporate‐bond yields fell significantly for ratings AA and AAA after a loosening of capital requirements for highly rated CMBS in 2002, whereas no comparable drop occurred for lower rated bonds (which experienced no similar regulatory change). We also find that CMBS rated below AA upgraded to AA or AAA significantly faster than comparable RMBS (for which there was no change in risk‐based capital requirements). We use a structural model to investigate these results in more detail and find that little else changed in the CMBS market over this period except for the rating agencies' persistent reductions in subordination levels between 1997 and late 2007. Indeed, had the 2005 vintage CMBS used the subordination levels from 2000, there would have been no losses to the senior bonds in most CMBS structures.

  • Mandatory Worker Representation on the Board and Its Effect on Shareholder Wealth

    Several countries legally mandate representation of workers on boards of directors. The evidence on the shareholder wealth effects of such a corporate governance design is mixed. I examine abnormal announcement returns around major milestones leading to the passing of the German Codetermination Act in 1976. I find that news about the act causes an average decline in the equity value of firms that are certain to have been affected by the new law of up to 1.5% relative to the control firms. Firms close to the regulatory threshold of 2,000 employees remain unaffected implying an expectation of avoiding compliance.

  • Mutual Fund Managers’ Prior Work Experience and Their Investment Skill

    This paper examines the relationship between mutual fund managers’ past professional backgrounds and their portfolio performance using Chinese mutual fund data from 2003 to 2016. We focus on managers with prior work experience either as industry analysts or as macroanalysts. We hypothesize that managers who worked as industry analysts exhibit superior stock picking skills, while managers with a background as macroanalysts time the market better. These hypotheses are supported by the data after controlling for observable fund and manager characteristics. Bootstrap analyses suggest that a significant difference in performance between these two types of managers cannot be attributed purely to luck.

  • The Propensity to Split and CEO Compensation

    We analyze the relation between the delta and vega of a chief executive officer's (CEO) compensation and the propensity of the firm to engage in a split. Controlling for other well‐known factors, we find that CEOs with compensation that has higher levels of delta are more likely to split their shares. Furthermore, the choice of split factor is inversely related to delta. Our results are economically significant: for the average (median) firm in our sample, a stock split results in a CEO wealth gain of $4.9 million ($84,000).

  • Corporate Cash Holdings and Acquisitions

    We find that acquirers’ announcement returns decline with their cash holdings, but only when at least part of the payment is in the form of stock. We further find evidence that acquirers that use stock payment are overvalued, especially when they have excess cash that they could have used instead. Collectively, our results suggest that investors interpret announcements of stock acquisitions as a signal that the acquirers’ equity is overvalued and that high cash holdings intensify this signal. However, our results are inconsistent with the common belief that cash holdings induce value‐destroying acquisitions.

  • Issue Information

Featured documents

  • CEO's Inside Debt and Dynamics of Capital Structure

    Debt‐type compensation (inside debt) exacerbates the divergence in risk preferences between the chief executive officer (CEO) and shareholders and, in turn, affects capital structure decisions. An excessively risk‐averse CEO tends to use less debt than the shareholders desire, reduce debt quickly...

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    I investigate the effects of firms’ proportion of fixed and variable costs on their payout policy and find that firms with higher fixed costs have significantly higher volatility in their future cash flows and more variable future operating incomes. These firms pay a lower fraction of their...

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  • Failure Risk and the Cross‐Section of Hedge Fund Returns

    Modeling a hedge fund's probability of failure with a dynamic logit regression, I find that the probability of a fund's failure has a significantly negative effect on the fund's future returns. A quintile portfolio with the highest failure probability underperforms a quintile portfolio with the...

  • Firm Opacity Lies in the Eye of the Beholder

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  • Informed Trading in Corporate Bonds Prior to Earnings Announcements

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    We document the different types of restructuring activities undertaken during the private period after the reverse leveraged buyout (RLBO) of previously public firms. Preceding the LBO, firm leverage significantly exceeds that of their peers, while their profitability is better than the industry....

  • On the Relative Performance of Investment‐Grade Corporate Bonds with Differing Maturities

    We find that short‐maturity investment‐grade corporate bonds perform better, controlling for risk differences, than similar bonds with longer maturities. Our results are at least partially attributable to insurance companies’ trading behavior and align with the preferred‐habitat theory of the term...

  • Political Party Affiliation of the President, Majority in Congress, and Sin Stock Returns

    We find that in contrast to the stock market, which performs better during Democratic presidencies, “sin” stocks—publicly traded producers of tobacco, alcohol, and gaming—perform better during Republican presidencies and even more so when the Republican presidency is accompanied by a Republican...

  • Tradeoffs between Internal and External Governance: Evidence from Exogenous Regulatory Shocks

    We use the 2002 NYSE and NASDAQ listing requirements mandating firms have a majority of independent directors on the board as an exogenous shock to examine the interaction between internal and external governance. Relative to compliant firms, noncompliant firms significantly reduced exposure to...

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