Business and Society Review

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  • Toward discovering a national identity for millennials: Examining their personal value orientations for regional, institutional, and demographic similarities or variations

    Millennials are a powerful workforce group and are quickly becoming established business leaders, consumers, and investors. Yet, millennials are often described as a uniformly homogeneous generation, despite mounting evidence of variances across their private and workplace behaviors, attitudes and preferences, and personal values. This article examines the personal value orientations of millennials in the Unites States, reporting consistencies, variations, and contrasts based on a large sample drawn from seven diverse universities. Results of this article suggest more similarities across a national population of millennials than differences, suggesting a national identity among American millennials. Practical implications of our findings and future research are discussed.

  • Beyond market, firm, and state: Mapping the ethics of global value chains

    The growth of global value chains (GVCs) and the emergence of novel forms of value chain governance pose two questions for normative business ethics. First, how should we conceptualize the relationships between members of a GVC? Second, what ethical implications follow from these relationships, both with respect to interactions between GVC members and with respect to achieving broader transnational governance goals? We address these questions by examining the emergence of transnational eco‐labeling as an increasingly prominent form of GVC governance that is redefining the relationship between nominally independent firms. On the first question, we argue that GVCs occupy a middle ground between intrafirm and interfirm transactions, thereby posing a challenge to theoretical frameworks that attempt to apply ethical standards based on transaction types. On the second question, we argue that this unique institutional status leads to a range of novel ethical considerations and dilemmas for GVC members. Lead firms, their suppliers, and third‐party standard‐setters all confront new ethical quandaries when third‐party eco‐labeling is introduced to a GVC. The nature of these quandaries means that, while GVCs may be well‐positioned to serve as instruments of transnational governance, they are frequently not well‐oriented to do so. Our analysis marks an initial attempt to map the ethical considerations that apply to members of a GVC, and in doing so, places the literature on normative business ethics and transnational governance in a closer conversation.

  • Contextualizing compliance officers and their state of practice

    The compliance officers' (CO) profession has been evolving over the last few decades. The expectations placed upon the individuals holding such a position vary across jurisdictions, but they are all expected to ensure employees and management of the business entity comply with the law. Given the limited research on CO in Europe, and the increasing public interest in this profession, the current authors have carried out a survey in Cyprus in an effort to map out and contextualize the CO' profession. The findings illustrate CO's academic and professional qualifications, their awareness of their legal liability, the level of knowledge and job performance of their duties as prescribed by law, as well as gaps in the performance of duties as expected by management, boards, and regulators. The policy implications derived from the study suggest coherence and synergies to be found through common exam and postgraduate qualification in the field of financial compliance.

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  • The problem of imposing risk and the procedural dimension of stakeholder management

    The case Caprica Energy and Its Choices concerns a fictionalized energy corporation choosing between three potential drilling sites. According to the published Teaching Note, the case is an exercise in the stakeholder approach to business: it requires balancing profit considerations with potential harm to those who live near those drilling sites. Though unintended, the case raises a further question not addressed in the case or in the Teaching Note: what gives Caprica Energy the right to impose risk on members of the communities surrounding its drilling sites? The first section of the present article argues that, in such cases, management can only justify imposing risk on the local community by securing those stakeholders' consent. The second section outlines the implications for stakeholder theory and stakeholder management. The third section outlines one connection between this material and recent literature on the imposition of risk and moral theory; that section offers an account of what make this particular instance of imposing risk morally problematic, with reference to the directedness of the imposition.

  • Multi‐source research designs on ethical leadership: A literature review

    The aim of this article is to undertake a systematic literature review (SLR) of empirical research that uses multi‐source methods for collecting data about Ethical Leadership (EL). Research on this sensitive subject benefits from the inclusion of data from more than one source, in order to be better supported, and thus contribute to a deeper understanding of leadership and business ethics issues. The search strategy retrieved a total of 50 multi‐source empirical studies on the topic of EL, published until December 2017. This SLR shows that (a) research on EL has focused mostly on the perceptions of followers, possibly because they are the most accessible target of its outcomes, thus restricting the scope of this body of research; (b) EL is studied mainly through consideration of its consequences, a restriction that hinders explanation of the causal processes involved in ethical leadership, which remains a research arena in need of development. The systematic inclusion of other stakeholders in multi‐source methods is advanced as a way to further develop the field.

  • Landscapes of financial exclusion: Alternative financial service providers and the dual financial service delivery system

    This research addresses equity in geographic access to financial services. As financial products and services continue to become more accessible and affordable, many low‐ to moderate‐income Americans remain unbanked and underbanked, relying instead upon informal, alternative financial service providers, including check cashing outlets and payday lenders. While geographic access to affordable financial products and services assists in the successful asset building strategies of economically vulnerable households, concerns that access to financial services is uneven persist. This article uses geographic information systems and spatial binary logistic regression analysis to test the hypothesis that sociodemographic characteristics and mortgage lending variables have a predictive relationship on the presence of financial deserts—census tracts where check cashing outlets are more prevalent than banks—in southeastern Pennsylvania. Results of comparison of means and regression analysis reveal that these tracts are associated with higher than average population density, lower levels of median household income, a higher proportion of Black and Latinx residents, and higher levels of mortgage application denial. This article contributes to the ongoing debate over the emergence of a two‐tiered or dual financial service delivery system, whereby financial products and services are bifurcated based on socioeconomic status and geography.

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  • Business ethics in the broiler industry

    The chicken meat, or broiler, business in the United States is a vertically integrated industry in which integrator corporations control all aspects of the business. Primarily through a series of business acquisitions, an industry duopoly has evolved. The two dominant integrator corporations, Pilgrim's Pride and Tyson Foods, are profitable, and their officers and stockholders benefit from the corporations’ financial success. The multitude of local growers who nurture the chickens to maturity for the integrators, however, benefit minimally from the financial success of the integrators, as the growers face a myriad of financial, environmental, community, and health problems. Many growers have difficulty in extracting themselves from an occupation that requires their initial, personal expenditure, or debt of hundreds of thousands of dollars. Additionally, many who live in regions or states of broiler growing facilities suffer from gases emitted by these facilities and correspondingly lower property values. Several demographic, economic, education, health, and quality of life metrics were analyzed for the 50 U.S. states to provide insights regarding the ethics of the broiler industry and why some states produce significantly more broilers than others.

  • Assessing UNGC pharmaceutical signatories stakeholders using big data

    This article aims to focus on how signatories versus nonsignatories in the U.S. pharmaceutical sector compare with respect to the internal and external stakeholders and principles of the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC). We seek to answer the question: Do signatories to the UNGC walk the talk better than nonsignatories as determined by a variety of published rankings and data? This research presents an innovative approach to the evaluation of UNGC signatories. It uses several objective and independent data sources to assess a matched group of signatories versus nonsignatories in the U.S. pharmaceutical sector. Signatory organizations in the same sector as determined by SIC codes were matched with nonsignatories on variables such as size and number of employees in U.S. pharmaceutical companies. Then both types of organizations were compared on the following data sources: Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies ratings, ratings by external stakeholders, ratings by employees, unionization data, financial measures, and annual reports to shareholders. Using nonparametric testing the research found there are differences between signatories and nonsignatories in the U.S. pharmaceutical sector for some of the external stakeholder measures and no differences were found for the internal stakeholder measures.

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