How sales personnel view the relationship between job satisfaction and spirituality in the workplace.
INTRODUCTIONSpirituality in the workplace is about people who perceive themselves as spirited beings, whose spirits desire and need to be energized through work. It is about experiencing real purpose and meaning at work beyond paychecks and performance reviews. Spirituality is about people sharing and experiencing some common attachment, attraction, and togetherness with each other within their work unit and the organization as a whole (Harrington, 2004). The recent spurt of scholarly articles along with several authors currently writing on the work-spirituality connection (Benefiel, 2003; Krishnakumar & Neck, 2002; Ashmos & Duchon, 2000; Dehler & Welsh; 1994) reflects the interest in the relationship of spirituality in the workplace, job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Connolly & Myers, 2003; Milliman, Czaplewski & Ferguson, 2003). The need for a spiritual connection has become important to a wider audience, partly because of ongoing changes in organizational structure, which often results in feelings of insecurity regarding one's place in the system (Heaton, Schmidt-Wilk & Travis, 2004). The core of spirituality is about people sharing and experiencing some common attachment, attraction, and togetherness within their work unit and the organization as a whole. (Harrington, 2004; Mitroff & Denton, 1999). The term spirituality comes from the Latin word spiritus, meaning vapor, breath, air or wind. Mitroff & Denton (1999) defined spirituality as the desire to find one's ultimate purpose in life, and to live accordingly. However, a review of the literature determined that there is no single agreed-upon definition of the term "spirituality" among those who are conducting research in this field. Recent scholars have moved towards defining spirituality in terms of purpose and meaning, community and an element of interconnectedness (Allegretti, 2000; Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2003). Allegretti defines spirituality as a kind of shorthand for the deepest urgings and impulses of the human self: That which gives meaning and depth to everyday life. The concept encompasses one's need for creativity, one's desire for self-expression, and a hunger for love and service. A spirituality of work refers to making work a part of spiritual life, finding opportunities for self-expression, bringing moral values into the workplace, standing up for what one believes, and developing a sense that all of life is sacred (Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2003). Spirituality, accordind to Giacalone & Jurkiewicz (2003) refers to the idea that individuals hold a set of moral beliefs (distinct from religious beliefs) that inform their sense of right and wrong in the workplace. These beliefs generally center on a desire by the individual to be his or her best, to help others be their best, and to feel a sense of connectedness with one's work and coworkers. By acting upon these beliefs, individuals achieve a sense of sacredness in their actions and in the world (Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2003). PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this empirical study is to examine the relationship of spirituality in the workplace to job satisfaction. The ultimate goal is to use a current theory with practical implications for creating a positive workplace environment; in this way human resource professionals and corporate executives may implement practices that lead to further growth in employee development, increased job performance, lower turnover rates, higher profits, and long term employee satisfaction and employee retention as they relate to organizational goals and strategies. NEED FOR THE STUDY There is currently limited knowledge and research about the relationship between workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. Hence, this empirical study assesses the strength of the relationship between spirituality in the workplace and job satisfaction. Moore and Casper (2006) measured the impact of a proxy of workplace spirituality (perceived organizational support) and found a high correlation between affective organizational commitment and intrinsic job satisfaction. The focus of this study will be on sales managers who work for a Fortune 500 company and the results will be used to for human resource purposes to gain a in-depth understanding on job satisfaction as it relates to spirituality in the workplace. RESEARCH QUESTIONS The study addresses the following research questions: Is spirituality among sales personnel in the workplace related to job satisfaction? Job satisfaction is an important variable that has been established as a key variable relating to individuals and o...