(219) According to Ugandan journalist Andrew Mwenda, "The primary problem for Africa is one of governance. The poor in Africa do not have basic social services because they are ruled by repressive, corrupt and incompetent governments. These governments spend millions of dollars annually on their corrupt and ineffective militaries, on ostentatious consumption by the political class, and on obese, profligate and highly incompetent bureaucracies. The institutions are very corrupt and incompetent that they stifle both domestic entrepreneurial initiative and frustrate foreign direct investment. These actions are not sustainable in the long term, of course, as these governments eat away the very economic foundation of their political survival. Foreign aid is the subsidy governments in Africa employ to avoid facing the consequences of their own folly. Without aid, many governments in Africa would stare regime collapse in the eye. Some would be stupid, retain the old ways and collapse. But many would be forced to reform their monetary and fiscal policies, to be frugal and prudent, to put in place public policies and political institutions that favor rapid economic growth and capital accumulation. They would have to listen more to their own people and foreign investors in policy making and policy orientation. In short, they would be forced to establish good, effective, accountable and democratic governments. Good and accountable government is not a product of altruism but enlightened self-interest. Sachs, Bono, Geldof, Tony Blair--and all the many good but naive people of the West--need to learn that simple, commonsense logic" (emphasis added). See Richard Tren, "Freedom and Sedition", an Interview With Andrew Mwenda, Political Editor of The Monitor, Uganda, TCSDally.com (5/23/06), at: (http://www.tcsdaily.com/article.aspx?id=052306C).(220) "Improved health has contributed significantly to economic welfare. Per capita GNP rose rapidly in developing countries in the decades following 1960, and economic research suggests that health improvements led to perhaps l0 percent to 15 percent of that GNP growth" (emphasis in original), gee Dean T. Jamison, "Investing in Health" Chap. 1, Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries 2d Ed., The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, (2006), at p. 4, at: (http://files.dcp2.org/pdf/DCP/DCPFM.pdf); (http://files.dcp2.org/pdf/DCP/DCP01.pdf.). (221) "A key conclusion ... of the United Nations Millennium Project ... is that innovation for 'medicines and other products' must be situated within a wider picture of efforts across sectors to improve health and development. Another is that 'other products' should include those for improved diagnosis and prevention--including existing well proven but low technology interventions that can be brought to bear on complex public health challenges" (emphasis added). Ibid., at p. 21. (222) "Some of the most important impediments to the effective management of the growing body of developing country knowledge ... are the limited institutional resources in the form of skilled staff that can deal with intellectual property issues ... But the main point that needs to be emphasized here is the need to build the required institutional framework (e.g., patent office, administrative and court procedures) and the requisite skill set." Ibid., at p. 171. "... A factor in technology transfer in the area of production is the relative lack of experience and skill of developing country enterprises to conclude adequate legal arrangements to acquire the necessary technology. Other issues include the limited capacity of domestic firms to operate further up the value chain, and a lack of capacity to adapt acquired technology to local needs?' Ibid., at p. 172. "One approach to facilitating technology transfer--provided that technology owners are willing to part with it--is to enhance the capacity of developing countries to receive and use these complex technologies ... The TRIPS Agreement provides that developed countries shall provide incentives to their enterprises and institutions to promote and encourage the transfer of technology to least developed countries (Article 66.2). This provision was reemphasized in the Doha Declaration" (emphasis added). Ibid., at p. 173. "... Developed countries and pharmaceutical companies (including generic producers) should take measures to promote the transfer of technology and local production of pharmaceuticals in developing countries, wherever this makes economic sense and--promotes the availability, accessibility, affordability, and security of supply of needed products" (emphasis added). Ibid., at p. 174. (223) At least one recent (2006) study has concluded that, developing country citizens have been denied access to essential medicines because of the abject poverty and poor environmental conditions existing within their borders, misdirection of government health budgets, inef...