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COPYRIGHT GALE, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved
from March 1993
Last Number: November 2012
East Asian countries address security concerns more passively compared to the West. China's seizure of a territory of the Philippines on Jan. 1995, for instance, met with no resistance or criticism. East Asians attributed their response to cultural factors. However, it is shown that China's power was the reason behind this passivity, and that solid security policies must be put in place to prevent Chinese control over the region.
Eric Hobsbawm is regarded as the most distinguished British historian with a Marxist perspective. His fourth book entitled 'The Age of Extremes: A History of the World,' is a historical reflection on the 20th century. Hobsbawm agrees with many historians that the 20th century symbolically encompasses the years between 1914, the start of World War I, up to 1989, when communism ended in Eastern Europe, or 1991, when the USSR broke up. He also divides the 20th century into the 'Age of Catastroph...
Russia and the US Russia and the US should adopt a new form of relationship as they journey through the post-Cold War era. They should both maintain contact and distance themselves from each other. Such a combination of distance and regular engagement will provide enough time for Russia to review the results of the transformations it is experiencing and ultimately remove the two main barriers to its liberalization: national humiliation and the perception of hostility from external forces.
A strategy to encourage the political and economic development of southern Africa is discussed. It involves the privatization of the World Bank while ensuring the existence of certain cultural preconditions. It is shown that a World Bank of Southern Africa can be created from The Employment Bureau of Africa or TEBA, which was established to handle remittances from migrant workers to rural communities.
The rapid development of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore has been attributed to their own brand of capitalism which contradict existing Western theories. The required separation of business and government, for instance, has been defied with the development of personal relationships between businessmen and government officials while markets are segmented rather than open to the public.
Peace and stability in the Pacific Asia region cannot be ensured if its governments rely on culture and economic interdependence alone to avert disastrous conflicts. The region can learn several lessons from the democratic undertakings of its Western neighbors. It has consistently been observed that democratic nations rarely resort to war. Democracy in China in particular will be a major step towards true and lasting peace in Pacific Asia.
Australia has constantly struggled between its European and Asian identity brought on by its historical ties to Britain and its proximity to Asia. Although the nation's culture remains distinctly European, Prime Minister Paul Keating has constantly emphasized that Australia is a part of Asia. This struggle has serious effects on Australia's Espresso Democracy, trade, languages, military security and culture.
European Monetary Union Three theories have resulted from debates over the European Monetary Union (EMU). These include the theory that it is possible to establish a monetary union without political unity, that the EMU will encourage political union, and that political union is essential to the success of the EMU. It is shown that theories revolve around the nature of the central bank and monetary management factors.
Proposal to privatize the World Bank - Response to article by Nicholas Eberstadt and Clifford M. Lewis in this issue, p. 14 The proposal to privatize the World Bank is criticized because the bank was established precisely to solve the problems caused by private banking's fiscal imprudence in the 1920s and 1930s. Regarding the accusation that the bank lends without requiring material assets as collateral, it was argued that social benefits are better collateral than material assets, which would be difficult to repossess anyway. It was argued that the bank's original ideals tempered with a better understanding of th...
French President Jacques Chirac French Pres. Jacques Chirac has taken up the challenge of reestablishing France's position as one of the most powerful Western nations. His more notable actions include his decision to push through with a series of nuclear tests, developing tougher policies on Bosnia and the acknowledgement of France's role in the deportation of Jews during World War II. Chirac also plans to institute more changes which would affect both European security and the fate of the Atlantic Alliance.
Speech at Westminster College on March 5, 1946 Winston Churchill's speech at the Westminster College in Fulton, MO, on Mar. 5, 1946 remains one of the most important speeches of the 20th century. Churchill focused on the role of the United Nations in creating a new world order, arms control, and the use of military power and alliances to preserve peace. However, the speech also led to criticisms against Churchill for his rejection of the continued transformation of the state system.
The intensifying conflict between France and Algeria could lead to a repeat of the first Algerian War, placing the US in a difficult position. The rise in bombing attacks by Algerian Islamists has increased the pressure on France to retaliate. The US would then have to deal with its traditional attitudes towards Arabs and Islam, when confronted with France's requests to participate in a new campaign against Islam.
The growing inclination of the US to deal with international problems in a unilateral manner may have domestic appeal but is neither wise nor sustainable. It is suggested that US foreign policy be geared towards a multilateralism which is informal in nature. Although this approach also has its own limitations, such informal coalitions offer the best vehicle for projecting US power during times of crisis, as was shown during the 1989 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent multinational ef...
Mexico's economic problems may be traced to the seven-decade-long ditatorship of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). The Mexican government bears more similarity to a Leninist dictatorship than a democracy because the PRI's monopoly of political power has blurred the distinction between party and state. However, recent events indicate that the PRI's grip on political power is becoming weak, due in part to Pres. Ernesto Zedillo's reform efforts. The US government has a role in ensurin...
The Clinton Administration failed to establish stable policies regarding NATO and Bosnia. NATO could have been sent early on to avert the Bosnian crisis. Instead, the administration assumed three conflicting policies towards Bosnia which include the support for a multiethnic Bosnian state, support to end war and suffering, and a hands-off policy for the fulfillment of the first two objectives.
NATO has remained intact six years after the collapse of the former USSR, contrary to the conventional wisdom that coalitions and alliances seldom survive victory. Although the threat it was created to meet is already gone, there is still a need for NATO in view of residual risks posed by Russia. To keep the alliance intact in the coming years, it is suggested that the NATO structure and its mission be kept intact, although on a smaller scale.
Kenya was considered the jewel of Britain's African colonies during the 19th century. In addition to being an important route to the riches of India, the area offered British settlers a comfortable climate and a vast array of wildlife for hunting. However, colonization left Kenya ill-prepared for the pressures of democracy and government, resulting in the continued decline of the nation's economy and increased government corruption.
Only six years have passed since the end of the Cold War yet many now exhibit a tendency to forget one of the most profound periods in human history. Many seem to treat the years of the Cold War as a period which should be blotted out from memory, that international relations today are a continuance of the period just before the start of the East-West rivalry. It is suggested that this desire to forget the Cold War is a result of embarrassment on both sides.
Life of Aino Kuusinen The memoirs of Aino Kuusinen was published in the US in 1975 under the title 'The Rings of Destiny: Inside Soviet Russia from Lenin to Brezhnev.' The book, which was published posthumously, was immediately dismissed by American academics as the result of the vivid imagination of an adventuress. Such attacks on Kuusinen's credibility persisted and was reinforced by the preface to the book's American edition. As Aino was a Soviet spy and wife of Otto Kuusinen, an 'Old Bolshevik' who was crucial...
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